Guide to use of state adopted textbooks (2024)

UID 0 USE F STATE ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS
GEORGIA PROGRAM
FOR THE
IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUCTION
IN THE
PUBLIC SCHOOhS
State Department of Education M. D. COLLINS
State Superintendent of Schools Atlanta;

GUIDE TO USE OF STATE ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS

GEORGIA PROGRAM
FOR THE
IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUCTION

M. E. Thompson Director

Paul R. Morrow Director of Research

Celia C. McCall Assistant Director of Research

State Department of Education M. D. COLLINS
.State Superintendent of Schools Atlanta, Georgia
1938

FOREWORD
Variety in educational materials to meet differing needs, interests and purposes of pupils and communities is essential to the best educational program. This variety in materials is now afforded the public schools of Georgia by the recent adoption of a multiple list of textbooks by the State Board of Education.
Teachers of the state are now challenged by a situation in which they are expected to use efficiently and well the varied materials which have been furnished. To learn to use new and varied materials effectively is no easy task for any teacher.
This Guide to Use of State Adopted Textbooks should be helpful to the thousands of teachers in Georgia who made an excellent beginning this past year toward effective use of the new materials furnished the schools by the State Board of Education.
M. D. Collins, State Superintendent of Schools
S. V. Sanford, Chancellor of the University
System of Georgia

COMMITTEES
The materials of this bulletin were prepared by the following committees:
Elementary School Textbooks
*Walter Downs, Chairman, South Georgia Teachers College Mrs. D. L. Deal, Statesboro Public Schools Elizabeth Donovan, South Georgia Teachers College Jane Franseth, South Georgia Teachers College
**Mildred English, Chairman, Georgia State College for Women Mary Brooks, Georgia State College for Women Cecilia Bason, Georgia State College for Women Austelle Adams, Georgia State College for Women Mary Lee Anderson, Georgia State College for Women Lila Blitch, Georgia State College for Women Mrs. J. G. Lowe, Georgia State College for Women Mary Thomas Maxwell, Georgia State College for Women Louise McDaniel, Georgia State College for Women Irene Scanlon, Georgia State College for Women
***Mrs. Rachel Sutton, Chairman, College of Education, University of Georgia
Laura Elder, University Laboratory School, University of Georgia
Mrs. Mamie Elliott, University Laboratory School, University of Georgia
Emily Jones, University Laboratory School, University of Georgia
Mrs. Ruth Thompson, University Laboratory School, Universityof Georgia
Mrs. Mattie Weaver Jacobs, University Laboratory School, University of Georgia
Katherine Erwin, Student Teacher, College of Education, University of Georgia
Virginia Forsyth, Student Teacher, College of Education, University of Georgia
Secondary School Textbooks
*H. C. Bryant, Chairman, Principal, Druid Hills High School Warren Jackson, North Fulton High School Daisy Frances Smith, Principal, Girls' High School, Decatur

,.

**J. L. Yaden, Chairman, Superintendent of Schools, Moultrie

Ethel Adams, Principal of Moultrie High School

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W. T. Burt, Superintendent of Schools, Camilla

....W. J. Scott, Chairman, Principal of Bass Junior High School, Atlanta
Sam Wood, Bass Junior High School, Atlanta J. P. King, Bass Junior High School, Atlanta

Subject Index for Elementary School Textbooks Katie Downs, West Georgia College

Use of textbooks in traditional programs. "Use of textbooks in progressive programs. ""'Use of textbooks in transitiona.l programs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

PAGE

GUIDE FOR TRANSITIONAL PROGRAMS_______________ 9

GUIDE FOR PROGRESSIVE PROGRAMS__________ 87

GUIDE FOR TRADITIONAL PROGRAMS

115

SUBJECT INDEX FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BOOKS 181

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

GUIDE FOR TRANSITIONAL PROGRAMS

225

GUIDE FOR PROGRESSIVE PROGRAMS

229

GUIDE FOR TRADITIONAL PROGRAMS

257

A GUIDE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
MAINTAINING TRANSITIONAL PROGRAMS
Preface
The committee responsible for the preparation of this report wishes to suggest that teachers read it from beginning to end. The first grade teacher should certainly not stop with the material on first grade. The fifth grade teacher should read more than the material for the intermediate grades.
As a rule teachers narrow themselves too much to one particular grade. They forget too easily that they are teaching children, not textbooks. They fail to examine materials found in books for grades other than the ones they happen to be teaching. It looks easy to give every child in the room the same assignment and the same book. Children should be trained to look for worth while material and to prepare their own reading lists on particular topics. If the material comes from several sources, outside and inside of books, rather than one source, the chances are greater that more children will become interested, more children will learn to evaluate what they find, to accept and reject ideas, to think through problems, and the teacher and children will no longer look upon one book or one series of books as the answer to all questions.
The material presented in this report is not descriptive of anyone program in operation. The committee responsible for preparation of the report has compiled suggestions which should be helpful in the use of the large number of books on the state adopted list. Throughout the report the use of a variety of books has been stressed with the idea that a wide range of material will meet the needs of a greater number of children.
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HEALTHFUL LIVING

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Introduction

RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. The promotion of the physical, mental and emotional health of the individual child should permeate the school's yearly program. All activities should center around making the child healthy in body and mind. Health education is not necessarily looked upon as an end in itself but as a means for attaining the richest and fullest life. Emphasis should center on the needs of the growing child at corresponding maturity levels, avoiding the evil effects of failure, strain and fatigue. The child should be taken where he is and his development extended at the rate of his capacity. Recreation should be looked upon as an essential to healthful living, and physical development should be furthered through constructive play in the open air.

OBJECTIVES. The school's program should center emphasis on the individual's establishing a mode of living that maintains sound and completely harmonious physical and mental health.

COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. Where health education should come in the daily, weekly and yearly program has perplexed many teachers. Good health has long been recognized as a desirable outcome expected from the program in the elementary school. The objectives have been stated clearly enough, but the method of health teaching has been in disagreement with the proposed objectives. Too many teachers have looked upon health teaching as a period in the day, separate unto itself, when the child was instructed in generalities of healthful living. Emphasis has been placed upon the memorization of specific health, and safety rules, the acquisition of numerous overmature physiological facts, and a minimum amount of outdoor play. Little attempt has been made to diagnose health deficiencies of the individual, to follow up the diagnosis with corrective work and to assist the child in establishing habits of healthful living.

GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. A successful health program depends on a thorough study of the child in his community. The Division of Vital Statistics of the State Department of Public Health will furnish a report on the health conditions of each county in the state. The school should endeavor to supplement this information by a survey of the living conditions of each family represented in the school. The school should study the child from the very beginning of the school year and supplement this record every year that the child is in school with all the relevant facts that can be accumulated.

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A complete record of each child's health history should be

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kept up-to-date by the teacher, the nurse, and physician. The
American Public Health Association publishes a- record form for

schools having no medical assistance. Teachers could easily con-

struct one for themselves. On an individual health record there are three main groups of facts called for: (1) communicable

diseases and other important ailments experienced, (2) immuni-

zation record, (3) record of the physical examination. A fourth

significant fact, attendance, may be added. A record of absences

due to illness is necessary to proper understanding of the child.

If schools do not have medical assistance or co-operation from

the public health department, the teacher should examine every child in her group at the beginning of the school year. The

school should supply the teacher with the following equipment:

(1) One measuring rod or two tape measures. (2) One pair of scales.

(3) One long rod or curtain pole to test correct posture.

(4) One Snellen's vision chart for vision test.

(5) One stop watch for hearing test. (6) One tongue depressor for each child.

(7) A health record for each child.

(8) One height and weight table for boys. (9) One height and weight table for girls.

(10) One thermometer.

The teacher should look for the following signs of physical
well-being in children:
(1) The child's expression is happy and free from worry. (2) The eyes are clear with no dark coloring and lines
surrounding them. (3) The skin has a good color and is firm and free from
blemishes or eruptions. (4) The hair is smooth and lustrous and the scalp is free
from dandruff. (5) The nails are clean and free from discolorations or
signs of nail-biting. The cuticle is even around the nail. (6) The teeth are even and free from dull spots. The gums
are firm with a healthy color. The tongue is clean. (7) The mouth is closed and not misshapen from mouth
breathing. It is free from unpleasant odors. (8) The muscles are firm, with good tone. (9) The posture is a natural, easy and erect position. (10) The carriage is alert, suggesting energy. The feet are
pointed straight ahead. The child can balance a book on the head while walking a straight line.

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(11) The feet have good arches, toeing neither out nor in. They show no evidence of crowded shoes.
--~ (12) The child's weight is optimum for his height. (13) The child enjoys games and outside play. He is outdoorminded. (14) The child's general appearance is youthful, vigorous and clean. He shows normal reactions and has good physical and mental stability.
It is likewise important that the teacher examine the personality of each child. Mental health is as important as physical health and each in turn has its effect upon the other. The teacher should know the child's mental age, intelligence quotient, the nationality and language difficulties of the child, social attitudes and habits, work attitudes and habits, emotional development, characteristic interests, special abilities and previous training.
SOURCES OF MATERIAL. There are numerous sources of material which will assist the teacher in establishing sound physical and mental health for every child:
(1) The individual child, his nature and needs, must necessarily be the center of an effective health program.
(2) The home environment of the child suggests points of emphasis and may be used in many home activities of personal hygiene, as proper sleep, frequent bathing, and adequate diet.
(3) The community environment affords opportunity for a study of the health awareness of a community, the sanitary conditions of homes, wells, barnyards, toilets, dairies, factories, water plants, abattoirs, restaurants, incinerators, dry cleaning plants, the work of public health clinics, hospitals, and method of sewage disposal.
(4) The school environment affords opportunity for many healthful activities, such as washing hands before eating, proper selection and mastication of foods, playing games in the open air, keeping classroom and school premises in a healthful and sanitary condition.
(5) The health service materials and medical room equipment, such as scales, measuring rod, cot, first aid kit, etc., may be used in regular examinations and in providing first aid to the ill and injured.
(6) The outdoor environment furnishes opportunity for the study of healthful living conditions of plants and animals, outdoor play and 'gardening.
(7) Raw materials may be used for construction activities, such as illustrative art and handicraft.
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(8) Reading materials, newspapers, current magazines,

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textbooks, and bulletins from state and local boards of

health, furnish desirable and worthwhilejnformation on

health topics.

First Grade
Health teaching in the first grade (as well as in all others) should be a matter of continual everyday practice. No child will learn to wash his hands with soap before eating by reading a book or making a health poster. He will acquire that elemental health habit only if soap and water are easily available and he is sufficiently urged to really scrub his hands until they are clean.
DESffiABLE HEALTH HABITS. Certain health habits can be largely controlled in the school situation and should be persistently followed from the first day of school until the child is an adult. A suggestive llst of such habits to be practiced is given here, followed by some discussion for providing actual practices of such habits:
(1) Sit up straight. (2) Hold your work in a good light. (3) Go to the toilet at certain times. (4) Wash your hands immediately after going to the toilet. (5) Wash your hands with soap before eating. (6) Wash your hands before handling books. (No one likes
to handle a dirty book.) (7) Chew your food well. (8) Take small bites. (9) Eat slowly. (10) Keep fingers, pencils, playthings and tools away from
the face and mouth. (11) Play outside in the sunshine and open air every day.
Take a sun bath whenever possible. (12) Rest (lying down) at least one half hour everyday.
(Rest is as essential to the health of a growing child as play and clean hands.) (13) Have a clean handkerchief every day and use it. (14) Take off wet shoes and wet clothing as soon as possible. (If not practical to take clothing off get near the heater and dry as quickly as possible.) (15) If you are sick do not come to school. If you have a communicable disease, even if you are not sick, stay at home until you have a certificate from the doctor or nurse.

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(16) Stay at home if you have a cold.
-<z.,; PRACTICING HEALTH. Rules are of no use unless practice can be provided. So let us discuss some practical ways in which teachers can provide opportunities for practicing healthful living :
(1) Sit up straight. Bad posture is to blame for many human ills. This simple rule should be emphasized in all situations, not perfunctorily once or twice daily and then forgotten. A simple method for teaching children to sit correctly is, "Put your feet flat on the floor in front of your chair. Lean forward until the trunk is parallel with the thighs. Push yourself back into the chair as far as possible. Sit up." (The teacher should demonstrate as she gives directions.) The children are sitting easily erect, with backs straight, not touching the back of the chair. In walking or standing an erect posture may be encouraged by having the child put his chin up and straighten his back. The simple direction, "Put your chin up" will have desirable effects.
(2) Hold your work in a good light. The light in the schoolroom should be adequate. Then children should be taught to put their work in the light that causes the least strain. The alert teacher will look out for signs of eye strain such as squinting, holding work too close or too far away from the eyes, etc.
(3) Go to the toilet at certain times during the day. Regular toilet habits are essential to health. The individual should be free to decide for himself when he needs to go to the toilet. The teacher should be sure the child goes to the toilet often enough not to produce strain.
(4), (5), (6) Washing hands. Three of these rules pertain to washing hands. There might well be a fourth-"Wash the hands whenever they need it." No person can keep his hands clean all day unless he washes them frequently. This practice is manifestly impossible unless water and soap are readily available and accessible for use at all times during the day. A towel is also necessary to this practice. Some schools which do not have running water provide hand washing facilities which are very successful although very simple. Two buckets and one dipper are provided. The children take turns using the dipper to pour water over each others hands from one bucket. The wash water falls into the second bucket. Each child is responsible for his own soap and towel.
Precautions:
Under no circ*mstances should a common wash basin be used since the practice may spread all manner and kind of disease.
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If the two pails are different in appearance there will be less danger that they will be exchanged in the cleaning process. . -,-~The one that holds the dirty water may be one color, red for instance, and the one that holds the clean water may be white so they are easily distinguished.
(7), (8), (9) Eating habits. Schools that neglect the lunch period are losing one of the best opportunities for teaching health as well as manners and citizenship. Eating slowly, taking small bites, and chewingfood thoroughly are certainly not practiced by children who eat hurriedly in order to get in all the play possible. Time should be provided for eating, just as for reading and playing. A certain part of the school day should be set aside as lunch periods in which children prepare for lunch (washing their hands, cleaning their nails, and combing their hair) and eat their lunch leisurely, carrying on social conversation with their neighbors. When lunch is finished each child cleans up and puts away his lunch pail. As the children realize that a certain time will be used only for lunch, that no one even if he does not bring lunch will be allowed out of the room until the period is over, they will begin to enjoy that period, they will tend to eat slowly and chew their food well. There is time for pleasant conversation, for reminding the children to chew with the lips closed, "take small bites," "chew food well," "sit up straight," "talk only when the mouth has no more food in it," and other habits that make eating with others a pleasure.
(10) Putting things into the mouth. This habit is not only pernicious to health but it is disgusting as well. Taking objects away from a child, reminding him that tools are to be used properly, having him wash his hands as frequently as he put them into his mouth, will help to check such habits.
(11), (12) Play and rest. Play out-of-doors every day has long been a common practice in schools everywhere but teachers are just beginning to realize that rest for the growing child is just as important as play, and more important than learning to read and write. One authority in child health says, "A child has sixty years or more in which to learn to read but he has only a few years in which to grow, and rest is essential to his growth." Habits of rest are almost wholly neglected. Even when a child is so weary that he has gone to sleep in a noisy room, resting in an uncomfortable position, he is awakened immediately. Some schools however are now stressing the importance of rest to the degree that cots are provided so that children may really lie down and go to sleep if they like; others ask the children to furnish their own rugs for lying down; still others not so fortunate in material
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things use several thicknesses of newspaper spread in the aisles or in other available space. -_5 (15) Communicable diseases. Every precaution should be Observed to prevent the spread of these diseases; There is no more reason for all children having measles and whooping cough than that they should have small pox if the community is properly educated to that fact. No child with any such illness should ever be exposed himself nor should he be allowed to expose other children. All sick children should be kept at home, or if they become ill at school, they should be taken home at the earliest possible moment. (In cases of flagrant violation county and state health officials should be notified.)
STANDARDS OF CLEANLINESS. Health practices that are largely controlled by the home may receive emphasis and encouragement and some bad habits may be corrected to some extent if morning inspection is a daily procedure. After the children have set up certain standards of health and personal grooming they should choose a responsible committee from among themselves to inspect the group. These standards may be prominently displayed on an attractive chart and every child should be familiar with the content. Such items as the following may be emphasized:
Are You a Clean, Well-groomed Person?
1. Your hands and nails must be clean. 2. Your face, neck and ears must be clean. 3. Your teeth must be clean. 4. Your hair must be clean and combed neatly. 5. Your knees must be clean. (If socks are worn.) 6. Your clothing (including your shoes) must be reason-
ably clean. 7. You must have a handkerchief, a towel and a comb to
keep yourself neat and Clean during the day. (These are essential. ) 8. You must keep your clothes buttoned and snapped at the proper places, your socks pulled up, your shoes shined. 9. You must sit, stand and walk with your chin up, your back straight and your shoulders back 10. You must have a bath frequently and put on only clean clothing. (This may be reported by the individual to the committee. ) (A mirror should be accessible for this program.) Setting up these or similar standards will require much talking and discussion in which all riH~mbers of a class may participate. If a complete list is not made at first other items may be added as the need arises. Frequent reading of the standards will
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tend to emphasize their importance as well as provide reading material for the group.
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TEXTBOOKS. The three attractive health books for the first grade may be used profitably by the teacher in compiling desirable health habits for children to put into definite practice. Later in the year, after they have read several primers and some first readers, the children may read the texts as library books, or as free reading in a class, or as supplementary readers. To read these books before a sufficient vocabulary for fluent reading has been attained will hinder the real purpose of the books which necessarily is to emphasize healthful living rather than to teach reading. After many health practices have become habits, after many standards of healthful living have been discussed, after charts have been composed and used to emphasize the fact that these everyday practices are considered of such importance that people actually write books about them to tell all boys and girls (as well as adults who know a great deal) what to do in order to be strong, well and happy-after all of these-is the most favorable tjme for reading of health books.
Finally teachers (and others) should realize that healthful living is a way of life and that no amount of reading or making health posters or talking will meet that need. When a child has a good foundation of health habits that he practices as a matter of course, he can then read for further information, for the pleasure of finding out if his practices are correct or for correcting his faulty practices.
Second and Third Grades
It is important for every second and third grade teacher to realize that health education cannot be secured through the usual method of memorizing health principles and rules, but that teaching must be related to the child's health needs in his own environment.
The following program contains the essential elements for work in the seCond and third grades during the year:
(1) Measuring and weighing. (2) Co-operation from the home, the family physician,
family dentist, the attendance department, school physician, and nurse (where such services are rendered). (8) Teaching of health habits. (a) A full bath more than once a week. (b) Brushing the teeth at least twice every day. (c) Sleeping long hours with windows open.
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(d) Drinking as much milk as possible, but no tea or coffee.
(e) Eating some vegetables or fruit every-day. (f) Drinking at least six glasses of water a day. (g) Playing part of every day out of doors. (h) A bowel movement every morning.
Note: The habits and attitudes presented in the previous grade should be consistently reviewed and continued. The teacher should discover early in the year the health habits of her pupils. To do this, she should make a 8urvey of her class to note the individual needs of each child.
(i) Proper care of skin and hair.
(4) School lunch for educational and nutritional purposes.
(5) Special health classes for seriously underweight children.
(6) Co-operation from physical director, if one is available.
It is recommended (1) that the state adopted textbooks be used primarily as a library or source books to furnish adequate material in the establishment of desirable health habits in the second and third grades; (2) that these books be treated as one large book in furnishing material for the health program and no one book be taken out of its setting and taught separately, but that all subjects and divisions of the books be combined into an integrated program; (3) that the teacher make an effort to put into practice the health essentials presented in the textbooks.
Through the use of stories, poems, and thought lessons, the authors of the health textbooks have tried to make health so attractive that the children will catch the spirit of healthful living, and that they will learn to know and to practice those habits which will make them healthier and happier children. For example, an illustration of the use of the textbooks in the second grade is given below.
1. An aid in providing motivation and development of the following health habits:
A. Cleanliness
(1) Personal cleanliness habits. (a) Care of the skin and its appendages. (b) Care of the teeth. (c) Care of the n'ose and mouth. (d) Elimination of body wastes. (e) Care of clothing.
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(2) Environmental cleanliness habits.

(a) Keep the classrooms and building clean.

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(b) Put rubbish in proper containers.

(c) Keep toilets and washrooms clean.

(d) Do not spit-it spreads disease.

(e) See that the school lunch is served in clean, attractive surroundings and in the proper

way.

The following stories are interesting introductory selections

concerning the emphasis on personal cleanliness: "Jim and Ann

Get Ready for School," "Washing Hands," "Caring for the Hair,"

"Caring for the Nails," "Caring for the Nose," "Taking Baths"

(taken from "The Road to Health," Book II).

An entire section of the book, "My Health Habits," is de-

signed for a study in personal cleanliness. The following selec-

tions might be read by the teacher or pupils and dramatized very

effectively: "Three Little Pigs and a Wishing Ring"; "What Happened to Frowsy Peter" (from Building My House of

Health) ; "The Little Boy Who did not Want to Wash Himself"

and "The Little Toy Soldier" (from "My Health Habits," Book

II). There are a number of poems concerning personal cleanliness

that second grade children should enjoy learning. They might

include them in their Health Scrapbook or Diary and then find

pictures to illustrate such poems as: "Be Clean," "Rub-a-Dub-

Dub," and "Health Rimes" (from "My Health Habits," Book II).

The materials on cleanliness from "My Health Habits" may

be used to create an interest on the part of the children in morning inspection. In the checking up of health habits the daily

inspection must play an important part. It will include such

factors as listed above under personal cleanliness. The aim of

class inspection is to encourage the children and help them to keep

clean, not for the sake of keeping individual records of their shortcomings. The morning inspection of the second grade should

be a pleasurable, not a painful activity. The children may make

rhymes set to music to accompany inspection, as the poem, "Show Us How You Do These Things," in "My Health Habits," Book II.

There are many ways of morning inspection, which depend on the

originality, imagination, and initiative of the teacher and the

children.

In reference to a study of personal cleanliness, there should

be an improvised corner or room where soap and water, a mirror,

etc., are provided for children to use in washing their hands and

combing their hair. Each child should be expected to bring a clean

towel and comb to school.

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The greater part of the material on "environmental cleanli-

,,,ness" will be embedded in the stories, poems, etc., for personal

f

cleanliness. However, additional material should be added con-

1.

cerning the cleanliness habits during the lunch period. In fact,

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much of the entire day's health program may at times be built

around the noonday luncheon without undue emphasis upon the

food itself. The teacher should familiarize herself with the contents of

each state adopted textbook in health. The textbooks should be used interchangeably as a need for the material arises. These citations are made to textbooks in the third grade to illustrate a

practical use of several health textbooks.

Now We Are Growing, by Wood, Phelan, Lerrigo, Lamkin,

Rice.

Following the specific objective on food, most of the material

suggested for use are such stories as "Grain Used for Bread," "Learning to Like Milk," "The Lunch Basket and the Baby Plant."

The stories "At the Dairy Farm" and "Milking Time" can be used

to an advantage to gain information after or before a visit to the dairy. "An Automobile Accident," and the discussion of alcohol on page 46, would be useless unless definite questions are asked by

the children concerning this stimulant. The objective tests at the

end of each story form a good foundation for testing health knowledge in the third grade.

Happy Living, by Brownell, Ireland, Siegel.

Many opportunities are provided for vicarious experiences of

other children's interests, and should be of value. If the children

in one's particular school live in a city, the story, "Planning a Vacation," will be of familiar interest. It is suggested that this

story be used by children who live in small urban communities or in the country to furnish pleasure or for information concerning how city children live and play. "A Picnic Luncheon" is excellent

for reading before a trip to the woods. "A Tourist Camp" and

"Where the Indians Hunted Buffalo" furnish reading in a study of pioneer life. "Passing Through a Desert" and "Visiting a Ranch" may be used in social studies. "People of Other Lands"

and "A Dutch Farm" are helpful in the study of foreign countries and peoples. It is suggested that this book be kept on the library

table so the children can read each story in succession, thereby

following the experiences of Dick and Janette Allen.

Health Stories and Practice, py Burkard, Chambers, Maroney.

The most value obtainable from this book is in formulating

standards in health. "A Sword to Win" and "Your Merry Men"

should be used according to the standards of one's own group.

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"The Giant and the Silken Thread" gives value to health habits. "Teddy Work and Betty Play" may furnish incentive for drama-c<t.; tization or the writing of a play by the children. Discretion should be used by the teacher in selecting the story, "A Visit to the Giants," as the story and accompanying pictures may cause children to become confused over desirability of drinking from pools. "The Party" might cause the child to think jumping in and out of the tub is not dangerous. The picture accompanying "Bad Habits Hinder" may give the idea that a wound should be bandaged after treating with iodine. "The Self-Testing Scale" should be of value to individuals.
It is not necessary for every child in the second and third grades to have a copy of each health book. Books can be moved from one group to another within a grade or within a school. The third grade teacher should find helpful material for certain individual children among the second grade books, and the second grade teacher may wish to use certain parts of the first and third grade books.
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades
Probably no field of education within the last ten years has shown more originality and vitality than that of health education. More and more are we becoming interested in health not merely for health's sake, but in the accomplishment of our hopes and ambitions for future healthy citizens. The formal, didactic method of instruction has given way to a vital health program centered about health habits. The health period is not the period that comes the last thirty minutes of the school day if there is time to include it. It is a program that lasts the entire day and that is concerned with the physical, mental, and emotional habits of the child. It extends into a desire to promote personal cleanliness, into a study of ways in which the child may overcome malnutrition, into a hope that all may be made to realize that health is an important subject in our curriculum. The health habits discussed in the first, second and third grades deserve continued emphasis in the fourth, fifth, and sixth.
The state adopted health books for these grades emphasize the development of habits which promote healthful living. A glance at the tables of contents will verify this statement. There are numerous worthwhile ways of using the texts. An example is given of how all the books of a particular grade can be used effectively in meeting the needs of a group.
From a study of the four attractive textbooks designated for sixth grade study, it is evident that the authors clearly understand what elementary teachers are trying to do. These texts are
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Blazing the Trail by Wood, Phelan, Lerrigo, Lamkin, and Rice;

.. .."Healthy Living by Fowlkes and Jackson; Science in Living by
. "'"Brownell, Ireland and Towne; and The Body a.oo Health by

Burkard, Chambers and Maroney.

It will not be difficult to see the ease with which these texts

may be used after a survey of topics is made and the close relation

is seen. A teacher has only to decide what her group needs to

study and then note each of the four books for material along that

line. Below is a survey of one of the most common topics of health

teaching. You will notice that there is material in each of the

books on this topic. An examination of the table of contents for

other subjects will reveal practically the same thing.

Foods The Body and Health

"Foods and Health"

Healthy Living

"Foods and Meals"

Science in Living

"What Your Body Needs" "Eating and Growing"

Blazing the TraiL "The Milk Way-Pasteur's

Life"

These books contain, in addition to the practical features,

many interesting topics. Healthy Living includes "Amusem*nt

and Hobbies," "Around the Clock Twice," and "Hikes, Picnics,

and Camping." Science in Living gives an account of health

progress from the primitive man to the present time. Blazing the

Trail is filled with vivid hero stories that show the progress of

medicine. They include stories of such outstanding people as

Clara Barton, Pasteur, Lister, Jenner, and Daniel Boone. "The

Race to Nome" is an exciting story found in Blazing the Trail.

Many of these books include a safety program which appeals to

children of this age.

The teacher of the upper elementary grades will find that this

material may be used for information in answering the "Why?"

that is so prevalent in the thoughts of children of these grades,

for the formation and evaluation of health habits, for teaching by

means of doing, for promoting interest in community health

agencies, and for satisfying the desire to have clubs, to become

athletes, to read stories of heroes, and to develop interest in per-

sonal appearance that is so noticeable in the child of this age.

Let us see by specific example how these books may be used

effectively in teaching one of the most important of the health

topics-foods.

Mter the health examinations have been made in the early

fall, after the weights of the children have become known, and

after a study of the lunches has been made for several days, it

probably will be quite evident that there is a need for a study of

foods. Through a talk on school lunches in which the foods are

23

named that the children should eat "because they make you grow," their normal curiosity may be called into action and they -c<t.. will begin to ask why these things are true. The teacher should have made a careful study of the health texts and should know where to look for this information. When the books are placed in the children's hands, they should be instructed to look in the table of contents for material on foods. The teacher should discuss the meaning of the new words that appear in the reading. Then the search for information begins. The children should have access to all of the books during the study and should not be confined to one book alone for the material. This study for information should be guided by the teacher so that the child will not come through with a jumbled mass of facts that have no meaning. She should try to motivate every lesson so that the child may see what can be done to improve his food, or how his lunch may be made to contain those vitamins necessary for growth and energy. The information may be obtained through free reading of the health texts, through the reading of other material on the subject, through assigned silent reading, through searching for answers to given questions, through committee reports, or through talks made by visitors. There should be an occasional check-up, either by the tests suggested in the texts, or by objective tests made by the teacher, or through a "sharing period" after some time has been spent in reading. The knowledge should not be checked on by asking questions on an assigned lesson so that the answers come back in book form. The teacher must guard against this in her use of the questions at the end of the topic in the book.
The information must not be allowed to stand as information. In other words the children do not want to recite the words of the text and then pass on to something else, but they want to prove that the text is correct. Some of the books provide suggested activities that are quite good, but the teacher should supplement these with others suited to her group. One excellent activity for the teaching of proper food habits is to promote a healthful school lunch. Maybe your school does not have a cafeteria. Are there no means by which your grade might furnish one hot dish to the school? Many suggestions for doing this are given in educational materials, if the children fail to think of some plan-but they won't fail if there is a possibility of their being allowed to handle it! The Body and Health provides material on the school lunch. Healthy Living and Science in, Living also offer suggestions on this subject.
Still another way of proving that a proper diet is essential to good health is through a study of white rats. The pupils enjoy this immensely, and it takes only a short time to note definite re-
24

sutts. The children will find means for carrying on the experi-

__Jllent in Healthy Living and The Body and Health.

'. ,
~

-'-- The boys of this age are particularly interest~d in games; hence they will enjoy knowing what athletes eat. A committee

may be appointed to find out something about an athlete's diet

and training rules. Again they may turn to their health books for

material. Science in Living gives a story, "Harold and Harold,"

and a picture of Admiral Byrd explaining that he needs energy

giving foods. Healthy Living offers such topics as "In Training,"

"Sports and Safety," and "The Olympic Games."

One major reading interest of this age level is hero stories. It appears that Blazing the Trail was written with this in mind.

When the study of milk is made,the pupils will enjoy the story of "The Great Discoverer-Pasteur" which, in order to make it have greater appeal, has been given another title, "Finding the Enemy and Cutting Off the Approach." During the study of strength for games, "Wilderness Road and Main Street," a good story of

Daniel Boone, will appeal to children. These stories are not to bE. "recited upon," but the children should refer to them during free reading periods. Comments upon them should be made in an informal manner.

The work on foods may be easily correlated with other school activities. The lunch period will give opportunities to teach the value of cleanliness when handling food, and correct table manners, so that this time may be one of the most pleasant and profitable times of the day. The writing of paragraphs on interesting phases, letters to people concerning excursions, reports by committees, dramatizations, puppet shows (The story of the rat experiment will make good material for a puppet show.), and plans for well balanced meals will encourage good work in language arts. The marketing of foods for the lunch room, the study of budgets for families, the buying of material for making the rat cage will make arithmetic a vital subject. The class may organize a "Round the World Club" and carryon activities in a social science project. This may include a study of foods around the world. The pupils and teacher are free to follow any idea that they may have concerning this topic.

The teacher has only one thing to keep in mind in using these

texts, and that is, "Do not make a fact-cramming hygiene course

out of your health program." "Healthy Living" is a program that

should grow out of the daily activities of the group for the develop-

ment of a healthy child as a citizen of his community.

25

SOCIAL STUDIES
-O:-.-~
Introduction
RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. The term social studies deals with human beings in their relation to one another in a changing physical environment. Earning a living and performing the responsibilities of citizenship are two persistent problems that every individual in any community must face. The answers to these problems cannot be found in any single volume or textbook. Any method of teaching which aims to develop the ability of boys and girls to think and act wisely in a complex society can not follow a page by page plan of assigning lessons from one book.
OBJECTIVES. Objectives of the social studies in terms of their relation to the scope of the curriculum can be stated very simply. It is essential that every individual child have (1) an understanding of the world to achieve a successful and happy adjustment, and (2) an understanding of the world to contribute to its welfare and to participate in its improvement.
Understanding involves much more than a mere acquisition of facts. Much acquiring of information stops short of understanding and becomes a wasteful exercise. The accumulation of facts is not educative unless the learner can use the facts in interpreting experiences, perceiving relationships, answering questions and solving problems which are pertinent to him in his environment. Too frequently the social studies have been taught by an overfeeding process at the expense of wholesome assimilation and understanding.
COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. The following practices characterize the work of the social studies in the traditional elementary schools: (1) the work is foreordained by standardized textbooks with emphasis upon memorizing facts to be given back later in teacher directed recitations; (2) every minute of the day is scheduled; (3) the social problems are prescribed by a systematically planned curriculum; (4) the emphasis is placed upon the story of man's development; (5) the child's mind is trained as a separate entity; (6) the curriculum is based on subject matter; (7) geography, history, civics, reading, and languages are treated as separate, compartmentalized subjects.
The schools which are trying to break away from the traditional programs (1) allow children to discover pertinent knowledge and techniques; (2) provide freedom for teacher and pupils
26

to work and plan together; (3) center activities around the most vital social problems; (4) emphasize the contributions of the past --~ward an understanding of the present civilization; (5) provide for social education of the child; (6) train children to think through problems of social significance; (7) train children to use many good books for reference and for "finding out"; (8) recognize and avail themselves of the valuable learning experiences afforded by trips and excursions, pictures, speakers and exhibits; (9) integrate the significant offerings of the various subject matter fields around the most vitally important social problems.
GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. Community survey-no program in the social studies is adequate unless use is made of the immediate physical and social environment as an integrating center of all learning. Every teacher should develop skill in utilizing the community as a laboratory. The community affords possibilities of one or more of these items for study: occupations, institutions, recreational opportunities, nature, historical development, or cultural heritage.
Dynamic teaching does not center upon books but upon ideas. There is no body of specific content guaranteed to produce good citizens. Young people may grow in sympathetic understanding, in open-mindedness, in technique, in critical judgment through studying any significant social condition or problem of the past or present. A comparison of the development and problems of our own community with those of other communities leads to a richer understanding of the lives of both groups. The major emphasis should be upon the present. The curriculum for the schools of Georgia can be made more functional by basing the children's activities upon the realities of the present social-economic situation.
Georgia's most vital social problems are cited by the curri-
culum committees.* These problems hinder the people of the state
from achieving the true meaning of democracy-an opportunity for every individual, regardless of birth, race, religion or economic status, to realize the fullest development of his capacities:
(1) A low standard of living prevails for the majority of the people in Georgia.
(2) Poor health conditions exist, as shown by a state-wide survey of counties.
(3) There is an unfair attitude in the state toward a large racial group.
(4) Georgia has a high percentage of illiteracy.
*Georgia Program for the Improvement of Instruction, Guide to Curriculum Improvement, Bulletin No.2, 1937.
27

(5) There is a disinterested attitude and a lack of enthu-

siasm, on the part of many citizens of the state, to

-<t.;

remedy the deplorable conditions of the majority of

the people.

(6) There is too little concern on the part of the masses at

the bottom to improve their own conditions.

(7) Georgia is wasting many of her natural resources. Too

many of her citizens deplete the soil and show no con-

cern for preserving and improving its fertility. They

show no concern for thrift in time, human energy and

natural resources.

(8) There is too little regard in the state for personal and

public property.

(9) There exists in the state an unfair attitude toward labor

in any form which has developed to produce the segre-

gation of individuals into groups, as farmers, "lint

heads" or mill hands, tenants, wage hands and share

croppers.

(10) There is a prevailing low wage scale in Georgia and

the Southeast.

(11) Georgia's countryside presents a sorry sight-one of

unpainted houses, bare yards, poor, eroded soil, little

livestock and poultry, and pauperized tillers of the soil.

DAILY SCHEDULE. The social and natural sciences constitute the core of the elementary school curriculum. The tool subjects, reading, oral and written composition, spelling, writing and arithmetic grow out of the organization of these two content subjects. The school day in the primary and upper elementary grades should be planned to allow for centering the daily program around social or natural science interests. One period should lead into another without sharp lines of demarcation between them. This arrangement would eliminate many short choppy periods, and give continuity to the daily program.
For those schools just breaking away from the traditional program it is suggested that one long period be set aside for the study of a problem having significant social content. During this period the children may investigate many books, pamphlets and periodicals and read to find the solution of problems which they themselves have set up as being pertinent to the interest at hand. There will necessarily be discussions of plans and findings, of places in the neighborhood to visit, of interesting group activities. There will be stories and letters written about group activities, as well as reports and summaries of readings by the older children. The problems involving arithmetic will add interest and life to the study of number relationships.

28

In the elementary school children should have: (1) time to work together on construction problems, to investigate and ex-pf6re with construction materials; (2) time to converse naturally, to plan and carry out group activities, to talk about their particular interest; (3) time to make records of their own activities, to carryon a natural social intercourse; (4) time during the day to enjoy stories, poems, pictures and music; (5) time to rest, relax and play in the open; (6) time to care for all bodily needs; (7) time to explore library and laboratory materials, to seek the solution of problems through investigation and research; (8) time to express themselves through various media.
EXCURSIONS. Trips and excursions add materially to the realization of the objectives for social studies. Words and pictures cannot take the place of direct experiences in promoting an understanding of significant social problems and relationships. There is no plan in the school's program for the trip taken just for the sake of going somewhere. The excursion should offer something of potential value to the child. It can justify itself only when the child has an opportunity to find out something he really wants to know, to make a purposeful investigation and exploration of his environment. The preparation for the trip and the follow-up afterward are equally important. Without them the trip is a waste of time. The trip should be looked upon by children as a privilege and only those who can conduct themselves properly should be allowed to go. The physical limitations of the children should be taken into consideration in planning the routine details of an excursion. Earning the money for excursions may be a profitable and pleasurable activity for children.
USE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT. When a child enters school for the first time his community broadens, first, to include the children of the group with whom he is most closely associated and, gradually, to include the entire school. Teachers should assist the children to achieve friendly, happy relationships with every member of the school community. The school becomes the natural place for performing the responsibilities of citizenship. Innumerable opportunities arise during the year for the children to develop their citizenship qualities, such as:
(1) Management of the milk wagons. (2) Beautifying the school grounds. (3) Editing a school magazine or newspaper. (4) Care of health room. (5) Serving school lunches. (6) Care ofschool building to see that it remains clean and
attractive.
29

(7) Management of the teacher's circulating library.

(8) Planning school parties.

. -:;:- .,-~

(9) Serving on the school council.

(10) Planning school assemblies.

(11) Running errands for teachers and principals.

(12) Administering first aid.

(13) Serving on a traffic squad.

(14) Care of grounds.

(15) Sending flowers to friends who are forced to be away

from school.

Courtesy and consideration of others should be emphasized

throughout the school. The children should realize that the school

is what they make it. They should realize that co-operation is in

order and their plans for the improvement of their community

will be given due consideration by the adults.

USE OF TEXTBOOKS. Beginning in the primary grades children should develop the habit of inquiry and exploration into the environment and into library materials. In the upper elementary grades the classroom should take on the aspect of a laboratory. Children should have access to maps, charts, atlases, almanacs, encyclopedias, dictionaries, census volumes, pamphlets and textbooks. They should develop the ability to locate, organize and evaluate materials. All textbooks should be scanned for information bearing on the social science topic under consideration, not just the books labeled history, geography, and civics, but readers, language books and health books.
One example is given to illustrate how all the textbooks of a given grade may be used to supplement the environment in furnishing material for social science problems. For further analysis of the textbooks for social science content see Reading.

COMMUNITY LIFE. In the second grade the social science activity on community life includes a study of the grocery store, post office, bakery, theater, fire station, church, etc. This activity helps the children to see the relation of the home to the community and thus adds to their stock of experiences. The following are the specific objectives of the community life study in the second grade:
(1) To help the children make the home, school, and community a better place in which to live.
(2) To develop an understanding of the relationship between home and community, and the interdependence of the lives of the people.
(3) To increase knowledge of those phases of community life which will lead to a clearer understanding of con

30

temporary social life, and to develop an appreciation of

.the workers in the community.

-<z...

(a) To show how the community provides for the health

and safety of the people.

(b) To acquaint the children with the outstanding local

industries and activities.

(c) To lead to an elementary knowledge of the essential

factors of the community as a direct source of foods,

clothing, and shelter.

(4) To teach the child to be a good citizen of the community

by stressing habits of social and civic conduct.

(a) Co-.operation.

(b) Respect for the law.

(c) Respect for the rights of others.

(d) Fairness.

(e) Courtesy.

Before beginning work on any part of the community ac-

tivity, as for example, the post office, the teacher should analyze

the group which is to partioipate with reference to the particular

abilities and needs represented by it. Some children may need

experience in working with others, and in sharing ideas and

experiences as well as their tools. Other groups may have a

number of children who are handicapped by personality differ-

ences such as shyness, fears, inferiority feelings, etc., which

prevent their free and profitable participation in the learning

situation. Children with reading difficulties must be supplied

with easier reading material. There are many varied ways of

approaching and developing the community life in the second

grade, but since it includes a wide variety of studies, it is neces-

sary to give an outline of one aspect of the community life study,

and to show how the state adopted textbooks may be used most

effectively.

THE POST OFFICE. The post office activity may be started at Christmas or Valentine's Day because of the occasion the children find for mailing gifts or messages of greeting to absent friends or relatives. However, the necessity for writing a letter asking for information, requesting the presence of some visitor through a letter, thanking a friend for kindnesses on a former trip or excursion, etc., often provide excellent motivation for the beginning of an activity on the post office. Other practical suggestions for the approach to the post office activity follow:
(1) Utilizing the children's conversation of what they saw or did during a recent visit to the post office.
, (2) Allowing the children to discuss letters they have received recently.

81

(3) Allowing the children to talk with the school mailman. (4) Putting up pictures of former methods of carrying the
--~
mail. (5) Planning a trip to the nearest post office. The teacher should keep in mind these specific objectives when selecting material from the textbooks for the teaching of the unit: (1) To acquaint the children with one of the country's
greatest institutions, the post office. (a) Development of a postal system in the United
States, for example, the Pony Express, Post Riders, packet boats, etc. (b) Post office department and equipment. (2) To familiarize the children with the processes involved in the sending of a letter. (a) How the mail is handled. (b) The various types of mail, air mail, rural free delivery, special delivery, registered mail, etc. (c) Proper process for preparing letters for mailing. (d) The transporting of mail from one place to another. (3) To make children more appreciative of the services rendered them by the postman and workers in the post office. After the teacher has made a tentative outline for the activity on the post office, it is suggested that she examine all the textbooks including reading, arithmetic, language, spelling, etc., for material on any phase of the post office. Instead of the teacher beginning at the first page of the book and having the children read isolated stories one after another, she should organize and integrate all of her subject matter around the particular interest, in this instance, the post office. It is not necessary for each child to have the same textbook, but several books may be used at one time, as will be seen in the outline that follows, employing the state adopted textbooks. Reading:
"The Postman," "Elson-Gray Basic Readers." "A Queer Little Postman," "Fact and Story Readers." "A Country Mail Carrier," Wheels and Wings. "The Postman Gets a Valentine," Wheels and Wings. "Our Helpers," "Fact and Story Readers." "The Valentine Party," New Friends. "A Surprise Valentine," Joyful Reading. "The City Workers," Wheels and Wings. "When J0 Moved," Wheels and Wings. "The Mail Plane," New Friends.
82

"How Tom Went to the Fair," "Elson-Gray Basic Readers." "Making an Aeroplane Book," New Friends. --2.; "An Aeroplane Ride," Friends About Us. "The New Aeroplane," Wheels and Wings. "The Wheel," Wheels and Wings. "Night on a Train," Friends About Us. "The Proud Engine," Wheels and Wings. "The Big Boat," Wheels and Wings. "An Ocean Liner," Friends About Us.
Arithmetic:
"Comparing Numbers," Number Primer, Upton. "Writing Numbers," Number Primer, Upton. "Days of the Week," Number Primer, Upton. "Telling Time," Number Primer, Upton. "Cent, Nickel, Dime," Number Primer, Upton. "Numbers to 100," Number Primer, Upton. "Counting Money," Number Primer, Upton. "The Order of Numbers," Number Primer, Upton. "The Calendar," Number Primer, Upton. "Making Change," Number Primer, Upton. "How Addition Helps Substraction," Number Primer, Upton. (Many of the oral problems given, as for example, "Buying Toys," might be used in connection with buying stamps.)
Language (oral and written) :
"Helpers-The Postman," The Little Citizen. "Buildings in Our City," The Little Citizen. "Directing People," (dramatization) The Little Citizen. "Streets," The Little Citizen. "Writing Letters," The Little Citizen. "Your Club," (Rules-Word I-Period) The Little Citizen. "The Months," The Little Citizen. "Your Summer Vacation," The Little Citizen.
Health:
There are no stories in the health textbooks that might be classified under the study of the "Postman," but many selections that deal with the health habits, as proper food, exercise, personal cleanliness, etc., may be applied to the "Postman."
Spelling:
Words needed in making records, writing stories, letters, signs, etc., will comprise most of the spelling work, with the exception of drill exercises which will be found in the state adopted spelling text.
33

Writing: Writing stories about trips, conversations, and interesting
-c<t.;experiences concerning the post office. The state adopted writing text might be used as a reference book for individuals who need drill in writing.
READING
Introduction
RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. Reading continues to remain the most important tool subject in the elementary school curriculum for receiving ideas. Success in all other phases of the curriculum hinges upon the ability to read. Enjoyment of innumerable life experiences depends on the ability to understand the printed word.
OBJECTIVES. There are two major purposes for reading: (1) to gain information; and (2) for enjoyment. The aims of reading instruction throughout the elementary grades have been modified and expanded, giving major emphasis to reading as a desirable form of experience rather than just an end in itself. Reading instruction in the elementary grades should develop desirable attitudes toward reading, and correct reading habits.
COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. Traditional schools regard reading as a formal exercise, detached and isolated from all other activities and experiences. Reading is taught by the class plan of instruction, using the same materials and instruction for everyone in the group. There is more emphasis on the ability to recognize and pronounce words than on understanding the context. Teachers rely upon one approach to reading. Throughout the elementary school more time is spent on oral than silent reading. One basal text is used at a time. Teachers of beginning reading expect their children to read from books as soon as they enter school. Teachers look upon reading as a period in the day when children are reading from a book labeled "reader:"
Those schools which have broken away from the traditional program look upon reading as a functional skill. Reading is integrated with all the school's activities. Reading instruction is individualized, and the teacher interprets the learner's programs in terms of his capacity, aptitudes and environment. Children are introduced to reading gradually, and they are given a longer span of time to mature in its process. Teachers experiment with many procedures in teaching a child to read, trying another if one fails.
84

A wide variety of reading material is used, supplementary books, library books, newspapers, magazines, reference books, etc., <ffi.lited to the child's comprehension level.
GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. Upon two factors can the teachers of Georgia build a successful reading program. Without either they can as certainly fail. First, the schools must provide a great variety of easy reading material. Second, the teachers must make provisions for individual differences whenever they appear in our public schools. From a teaching standpoint these factors are too closely interwoven to lend themselves well to separate discussion. From an administrative viewpoint it may be practical to discuss each.
The variety of materials needed in a reading program has received gratifying emphasis by the recent adoption of a multiple list of state owned textbooks. Many teachers and educators look upon this as making a new era in Georgia education. Their hopes will be justified only if teachers use this variety of material to good advantage. Teachers however can not use this variety of material efficiently unless it is easily accessible at all times. That is the problem of the administrative and executive heads of schools throughout the state.
It is a common practice over the state for instance, to put sets of thirty books, all alike, in a classroom, leave them for a certain period of time, take them away and leave thirty others all alike. This method of distribution does not encourage the child to read widely on anyone subject; he gets instead a hodge-podge of unrelated facts at one time, another hodge-podge later. He can not use reading as a real tool for satisfying his natural curiosity at any given time. His interests change so fast that when the second change of books comes he has forgotten about them. This method of distribution also encourages mass teaching. What is more logical than to teach all the children the same thing at the same time in the same way, if the same material must be used?
Teachers can not encourage research unless material is accessible at the time it is needed and asked for by the child. If the environment, or factual material and pictures in the fourth grade geography, interest the children in cotton, then is the time that the children should look through all the reading material available for stories about cotton. These stories should be listed, the books named, and the pages designated. For days, or perhaps weeks thereafter, the greater part of the reading by the group will be about cotton. The reading lesson will also be the geography lesson. If this variety of material so much needed is not immediately accessible the best opportunities for learning and for teaching are lost. If a child and a teacher under such difficulties
35

:J "j
lose their fresh enthusiasm and their natural curiosity because there seems no answer to the problem, is it to be wondered at, or -c-2.; is it a natural consequence of being frustrated too often?
All or at least a greater variety of materials should be available at all times for constant use in all schoolrooms. To put the matter on a practical basis, instead of giving sets of thirty readers all alike to each grade, sets of ten of three different kinds should be made accessible at one time. Another different division of books might be eight of one kind, eight of a second kind, eight of a third and six of a fourth. Some schools might prefer as few as two or three of a kind of every variety available. These latter will necessarily be those schools which have advanced far along with their reading problems.
Mter this variety of material is within the school, it should be distributed to take care of the greatest number of individuals. There seems to be no real reason for a second grade child being confined only to second readers, or a fifth grade individual having only fifth grade material, if other material meets his need or serves his purpose. For instance, if the fourth grade previously spoken of in this paper has developed an interest in cotton, copies of all books within the school which have stories about cotton might well be used: (1) by the child himself if the material is not beyond his reading ability; (2) by the teacher as references to supplement the information gathered by the children if the material is too difficult for the "fourth graders" involved. Single copies of books from other grades may be made accessible for constant use as long as needed, with the distinct understanding that all such books must be returned in good condition when asked for. These single copies can be used by individuals in the fourth grade, and reports can be made to the whole group. It is to be understood that this fourth grade will of course use their own reading material in their research on any given topic.
Besides this lending of books within the school to other grades for reference, there should be also some provision for supplying much easy reading material to every child in the school. Reading authorities agree that at each age level every child should read rapidly many books that are easy for him. Some schools meet this problem by reserving a set of primers and first readers for beginning second grade, a set of first and a set of second readers for the third grade, and so on through the grades. These sets of books reserved for second, third, fourth, fifth or sixth grades are never used until the child reaches the grade for which they are reserved. They must be new, fresh, interesting material, not rehashed. Other schools have the children in different grades reading whatever grade material they are able to handle efficiently. For in-
86

stance, if it is found that a "fourth grader" can not read the material for that grade he is given material he can read even if it .. -~in first readers, primers or even preprimers; Ifachild in the fourth grade needs first grade material provision should be made for making it available and easily accessible until the child can read more difficult material. If the fourth grade has a group of children who can read only very simple material and if another grade has material they can read, teachers and principals may work out some schedule whereby certain books from other grades may be used by these weaker children every day.
Not only should children read many books at each level but they should read many kinds of materials such as: science, history, fairy tales, folk stories, realistic tales, legends, factual stories, biography, poetry, adventure, travel, romance, Bible stories, and mystery stories.
The final factor upon which the success of this reading program depends is the training of the teachers involved. Reading manuals are perhaps the best single source of information. Seeing the actual practice with children in capable hands sometimes brings to attention most forcefully some principles that apparently are overlooked otherwise. Conferences and classes with outstanding teachers, and visits to classrooms where children and teachers are living and working well together will repay any teacher for the trouble of going.
The whole question of individual differences ties up unmistakably with the variety of materials accessible to each child, with the relative difficulty of such material, and with the kinds of material interesting to the child. This should not be interpreted that every child should have his individual copy of every book. For economy's sake, as well as teaching him to share with his neighbor, he should be taught the necessity of sharing his book with his own group within the classroom, with his larger group within the school, and the still larger group within the community. In other words, in a truly democratic setup one book should be used in so far as is possible by as many children who need the material it contains.
SUMMARY: It appears that the first factor that hinders the progress of better reading in Georgia lies in the present method of distribution of books, which in turn destroys the possibilities, the opportunities for teaching children to use reading as a tool and at the same time encourages teachers to follow the logical procedure of mass teaching.
First Grade
READING READINESS. The importance of the reading readi-
37

ness period has been emphasized so extensively that it may seem superfluous to bring it to attention again, but the fact still remains -c--2.; that children are daily urged to read when they have not the slightest desire to read, nor the slightest interest in reading. Perhaps the greatest mistake commonly perpetrated is to put a book into the hands of a child when he is incapable of using it for either pleasure or profit.
Among the definite objectives to be worked for during the first few (or more) weeks in school in order to develop a readiness for reading are:
(1) The ability of the child to understand what a sentence is, to express himself clearly. This is sometimes called developing sentence sense.
(2) The ability to read as one talks, smoothly, and in a natural tone of voice.
(3) The ability to sweep the eyes across the page from left to right and make the return sweep accurately.
(4) The ability to find sentences within the story. (5) The ability to match sentences with sentence cards. (6) A growing consciousness that sentences are made up of
phrases and words. (7) Finally, near the end of the readiness period, the ability
to locate certain phrases and words in sentences, to match with phrase cards first, and then with word cards. (8) Giving the children wide experiences in many different lines and with numerous materials. A brief discussion of each of these objectives follows.
(1) Developing sentence sense:
This means simply leading the child to understand what a sentence is and how to use it effectively. If he is given a thorough understanding here he will be well equipped to read for meaning later, rather than for reading words. Allowing children to talk freely about anything they like, noting the sentences they use, with commendation for the good ones, always will further this necessary development of sentence sense. If a child talks in fragments of sentences rather than whole, the teacher may say, "But you didn't tell me anything about the dog. You only said, 'The big dog.' Tell me what he did (where he was, or why he scared you; or whatever the case calls for in finishing the sentence)." Ask another child to help if he doesn't at first understand.
(2) Reading as one talks:
If children tell stories, if they talk freely, if they make stories of their own, it is an easy matter to teach them to read fluently and smoothly in a natural tone of voice.
38

"Look at this sentence. Sweep your eyes all the way across. It tells about the dog. Now tell us what it says just as you tell a -st'ery." Or, "Yes, you know all the words but you should read it right off just as you talk so other people can understand what you are reading."
(3) The eye sweep:
This habit of sweeping the eyes across the page from left to right and making an accurate return is commonly neglected in our schools. It should be called repeatedly to the child's consciousness that he begins to read on the left side of the page, sweeps the eyes across and back again for a new beginning. This can be done by sweeping a liner across the page under the line as the child reads. (The liner should never be used to point at individual words as that tends to develop word readers. Always sweep the ruler smoothly across the page or hold it perfectly still.)
(4), (5), (6), (7) Finding sentences and parts:
The correct order of this procedure is the reading of the whole story until the children know it well. Then, "Show me the sentence that says, 'We had a visitor today!' The one that says, 'He is Jim's dog.' 'He went down the slide.''' First point out the sentences in order, then skip around and call for the first, last, middle, second or any nonconsecutive order. Then sentence cards are used, matching the sentences in the story, first consecutively, then skipping around. (The child should handle the cards.) Not for several lessons perhaps will the child ask about words. After a month some child may say, "I know 'we.' Here it is." Then the sentence cards may be cut into phrases or the child may show the phrase that says, "we like," "I see," "I am," etc. Last, words are located in the sentences. As nearly as possible always let the child work with the sentences, phrases and words in the context where he learns them. This order is important if we want to teach children to read fluently and with understanding. First story, then the sentence, then the phrase, and last of all the word.
(8) Giving the child wide experience:
Most of our children come to us with meager backgrounds. Wide experiences are essential for reading. The best way to develop reading readiness in the child is to give him many firsthand experiences with people and materials. Trips, excursions, books, pictures, clay, paint, crayons, paper, blocks, hammers, nails, saws, plants, trees, pets, animals-all the ordinary things close around -can be used effectively in building up a desire to read, in developing new ideas and a speaking vocabulary for communication of ideas to others.
39

If the school is not yet ready to participate to the fullest in -::--.,..~ the newest program, beginnings can be made in this reading
readiness program. The activities suggested in the following paragraphs will contribute much to the general reading program as well as to other subjects.
Planning the day's work should be a joint undertaking of the children and the teacher. This gives a much needed opportunity for the children's talking to a point. The teacher can note interests and ascertain needs of individuals as each participates in the discussion. Who makes pertinent suggestions? Who wants to play all the time? Who expresses himself well and clearly? Wpo wanders from the subject? Who finds problems and faces them squarely with every intention of finding a solution? Etc.
After the day is discussed and plans are developed the teacher may write on the board the sentences given by the group as:
Today's Work
We will read. We will sing. We will draw pictures. We will play. We will tell stories. We will rest.
Charts similar to this one may be used as the reading lesson for the day.
The children with the teacher may plan a party, a program, an exhibit, a booth for a show, a dramatization of a story. They should always plan a trip before they take it, deciding what they will look for, what questions they may ask, how they will get there, where to get the desired information to make the trip more profitable, what they may do with the information gained. If the teacher can forget she is the only adult concerned, enter the group, encourage suggestions that are pertinent, but allow the children to do the major work, they will develop an independence-recognizing as well as solving problems. When a child begins to find problems and to try to solve them, he has developed a desirable characteristic that is part of reading readiness as well as a quality of good citizenship. Visits to other rooms for any pleasant purpose, to share a storytelling period, to show the things they have brought to school, to listen to stories of others, to see what children of other rooms have done to beautify their working quarters, to show their work, to read charts to other rooms, are profitable to both guests and hosts.
A walk into the yard to talk about trees, flowers and plants, a longer trip into the woods to observe plants and animals, to
40

gather plants for the school garden or trees for the school yard, or . t(} get tadpoles, frogs, or other water life that can be kept in the . -s&hool room,a walk to a neighbor's cotton field to observe the
plant in different stages, a visit to any neighbor who can be induced to invite them, a visit to see baby chickens, or a dairy herd, or any farm animals, or just to have a good time, a party, a picnic, or less formal enjoyable occasions-in short, every common experience a child has which makes him more conscious of his environment will further reading readiness.
The use of materials is also a factor in the reading readiness and can contribute much to the program. If the child plants a bulb, cares for it, watches it develop and bloom, he will have a wider experience upon which to base a story about plants. If he makes things of clay, paper, wood, cardboard, using simple everyday tools, he is gaining valuable experience that will help him be an efficient reader and a more understanding citizen of his community.
Standards for health, for good reading, for any social activity can be set up through discussion and practice. Charts can be made which will emphasize the citizenship aspect as well as serve for language and reading lessons.
Reading a story to the children and letting them play it, or letting them draw illustrations for it is profitable, not only in securing poise, self-confidence, and self-expression, but also in developing the meaning of the content read. Some child may like to model the characters in clay, or to build the house or barn or whatever buildings are mentioned in the story.
To beautify their room, children may be encouraged to bring pictures from any source available. These can be displayed and discussed for beauty, artistic value, suitableness, etc. Flowers are abundant during most of the year. Children should arrange their own flowers and the class may offer comments and suggestions. Growing plants may also be brought by the children, as may tadpoles or other water animals that can live in the schoolroom. The children should assume the responsibility of taking care of all living things in their room. They should water the plants, use fertilizer on them,repot them if necessary, and give them any care needed. They should feed the living things, keep bowls or cages clean, and change the water when it is needed.
Other duties as dusting, straightening the books, papers, museum, supplies, can be relegated to the children. A duty chart on the bulletin board may say:
Please water the flowers, Jim. Please dust the tables, Sara. Please feed the fishJ Lamar.
41

Please straighten the books, Carlton.

Please put all papers where they belong, Estelle.

-'----~

Every child should be required to keep his table and floor

clean. After lunch each child should clean away all crumbs. Each

child is also responsible for his personal belongings. Each should

be required to hang up his coat, put his lunch in its proper place,

keep his pencil, crayons and other materials where they belong,

handle books carefully with clean hands only. He should develop

some pride in personal appearance, in cleanliness, neatness and

posture. All such experiences are necessary for developing a good

citizen and each experience gives him a needed background for

wide reading. This program for sharing and assuming respon-

sibility should continue throughout the year. At no time should

such opportunities for teaching good citizenship be neglected.

SUMMARY. The activities designated in the foregoing paragraph will not only further an interest and desire to read but will develop certain desirable citizenship traits. The activities should in most cases be continued throughout a school year. They can be used as a basis for starting the new program.
The reading manuals supplied by the publishers of the reading texts contain chapters on reading readiness, including certain suggestions and practical tests for ascertaining this stage of development. These chapters merit careful study by all teachers of beginning reading.

READING HABITS. Reading habits should be carefully noted and good habits should be encouraged always. Such habits as lip reading and pointing to each word are merely signs of immaturity. Some authorities say that lip reading is necessary to some immature children, that they do not comprehend until they hear, so they read so they can hear themselves. These same authorities advise against a strenuous campaign against this practice in such children. This practice, however, can be casually discouraged and a different practice begun if the teachers kindly suggest, "Try to see how much you can read with just your eyes, so no one else can hear you."
Pointing to each word and thus cultivating a tendency to word reading can be mitigated by the child's using a cardboard liner to guide his eyes across the page. The liner should be held still or be ~wept across the page in a quick, smooth stroke.
Excessive motions with the head or body can be discouraged casually. As children become conscious of good standards of reading they will tend to approach those standards.
It is important in a reading program that the child develop a full understanding of what constitutes good reading and good

42

reading habits. As the child reads the teacher may remark, .. "That was good. You read that just like you talk." Or, "Didn't
yoo enjoy that? Dick reads so we can all hear him." Such remarks
emphasize the standards of reading that the teacher wants to develop in the child. Then soon she begins to ask, "What did you like about the way Dick read?" and the children may contribute. Or if the child doesn't observe the standards the class may say, "I couldn't hear him." "He didn't read right off like he talks." As the children set up their standards, charts may be made (as the children dictate) :
We read only with our eyes. We read right off just as we talk. We read as fast as we can. We try to get new words for ourselves. We know all our words before we start reading aloud. We read loud enough to be heard by all. We hold our book in a good light. We sit up straight. We listen when others read. We help our neighbors read.
GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR TEACHING A CLASS. Always encourage the children to enjoy reading. Let them look at the pictures and draw any conclusion they wish. Help them to look at illustrations intelligently. Let them tell of their own experiences.
Always give a motive question for the story or let the children give one. One of the class may suggest, "Let's read this story to find out how the cat got away from the dog," or, "I want to know what happened after Jack got to the farm," or, "What do you think mother said when they couldn't find their coats?" The teacher may make similar suggestions.
When all children know the motive, "Now we are ready to read. Sit up straight. Hold your book in a good light. Let's see how many can read with eyes only. Read as fast as you can." As the children read they may ask for help. Some words must be told outright, others they will be able to work out for themselves through context, with phonics, by comparison with the word in other places, by its general configuration or by some method of their own. (This procedure should not consume very much of the child's time since he is reading for comprehension, and to fix his attention on another matter may divert him so completely that he may forget what he has already read.) As each finishes he may close his book to indicate he has finished, he may look at the pictures in the book, he may be given a test to occupy him while the others finish. When all have finished reading there should be a rapid checkup on the whole story. Simple questions are good. The
43

motive question comes first, then any other questions the children

... Qr the teacher care to ask.

~
~

-0-'2.;

Finally, comes the oral reading practice. No child should be

allowed to read unless he knows the story and can read right off

as he talks. If the child needs further study the teacher may say,

"We'll let Jim study this part while the rest of us read this next

part. We'll come back when he is ready."

If the child's interest has been centered on one particular

topic the state adopted texts may be used to read all stories about

that topic. If the present interest centers around birds a quick

survey of the table of contents and the book itself will locate all

bird stories. (When the children get as far in reading as the first

reader they should be able to do this for themselves.)

An example for locating materials about birds is:

"Tom Makes a House," Tom, Jip and Jane.

"Don and the Birds," "Everyday Life Readers," Primer.

"The Little Bird," Ben and Alice.

"The Bird House," Ben and Alice.

"The Fly Away Bird," Ben and Alice.

"Jo-boy and the Bird," Jo-boy.

"At Home in the Tree," "Elson-Gray Readers," Primer.

"The Snow Picnic," "Elson-Gray Readers," Primer.

If the interests center around the home all stories pertaining

to the home may be used. The state adopted books have placed

l}lany stories in one unit or chapter of the book. These units may

be read one after another, or correlated as the teacher sees fit.

The different units or chapters given in the table of contents of the

books are:

"By the Fireside," Peter and Peggy.

"Many Pretty Toys," lo-boy.

"Pets at Home," Ben and Alice.

"Work and Play at Home," Bob and Judy.

"Everyday Life with Pets," "Everyday Life Readers,"

Primer.

"Pets" (one story), "Elson-Gray Readers," Primer.

Throughout the year at frequent intervals the teacher should ask herself these questions:
(1) Has the child a real desire to read? What evidences have I that he does?
(2) Does he read as he talks? (3) Is his eye sweep smooth and accurate? (4) Can he work out words for himself in several different
ways or does he always have help? (5) Does he comprehend what he reads? Can he use the
material in any objective way?

44

(6) Can he find the part of the story that tells certain things designated?
--2.; (7) Does he have a good understanding of w.hat a sentence is?
(8) Does he always read silently before reading orally? Is that an ingrained habit that would be difficult to break?
(9) Does he read without lip movement and without pointing?
(10) Does he handle books without mutilating them? Are his hands always clean before he is allowed to use a book? Can he turn the pages carefully and correctly?
(11) Can he use a table of contents, find the story and turn quickly to the desired page?
Second and Third Grades
The rapidly expanding range of interests and an increased vocabulary of children in the second and third grades stimulate the desire to read widely. Every opportunity should be taken by the teacher of these grades to provide many forms of reading materials that are adapted to the capacities, interests, and experiences of the children. The reading materials may be displayed in the following ways:
(1) Bulletin board. Announcements of reading activities about to be
undertaken, covers of new books, clippings and pictures from magazines and papers, poems the children like, posters, etc.
(2) Library corner. These grades should have a book table or book
corner with low shelves containing books suitable for children to handle and read. The library nook, even though simple, should be cozy and attractive. Many libraries are made from the use of boxes and orange crates. There are some good selections of picture books that can be purchased from the ten-cent stores which will add to the number the school can provide. Children should be encouraged to bring books to school that they have finished and would like for other children to read. Material in the library corner should include, if possible, books relating to nature, social science interests, animals, bird guides, flower guides, books of poetry, story books, short stories, and picture books.
(3) Charts. These grades, particularly the second grade, should
46

make a number of experience charts at the beginning of

the year. Since the chart is a record of group experi-

-0-2.;

ences, to which the various members make contributions

in the form of sentences, it might be used as reading

material. Experience charts might include such ma-

terial as, for example:

(a) An account of an excursion by the grade; for example, a trip to the greenhouse.

(b) An account of an interesting activity or project underway in the classroom; for example, the grocery store, or the planting of bulbs.

(c) A story written by the group or individual; for example, about a toy brought to school by some child, as "Marguerite's DolL"

(d) Directions to be followed; as for example, "How Good Citizens Act When They Go on an Excursion."

The first problem that confronts the second and third grade teacher is that of ascertaining the varying abilities of her pupils and of dividing them into hom*ogeneous groups. The pupils in the second and third grades should be divided into groups according to their reading abilities, and each group should be permitted to progress as rapidly as its ability will allow. In this way the teacher's instruction can be adapted to (1) meet individual differences, and (2) solve the problem of distribution of state adopted textbooks. It is a common idea among the teachers of Georgia that every child must have a reading textbook of the same title. If the above idea of grouping is followed, that problem will be eliminated and better instruction in reading will be promoted. As will be seen in the example that follows, it is possible and advisable to use several different reading texts in the same class.

The large number of reading texts for the second and third

grades that are furnished by the state gives a variety of interesting material in every subject field. For that reason, the books should be used as. reference material for children. It is a current idea that when one book has been selected for a group that the children must begin at page number 1 and go through the entire book in the exact order in which it is written. It is suggested that the teacher select the material in the various texts that relates to the particular interests of the group and use it as the reading material. In that way, more than one reading book can be introduced and used in the class at one time, as for example, in the

study of the first unit in community life which follows:

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The Grocery Store
1. The grocery store as the immediate source of most of our food. (a) "The Grocery," Friends About Us (b) "When Jo Moved," Wheels and Wings (c) "The City Workers," Wheels and Wings (d) "In the City," Friends to Know (e) "A Mexican Market," Friends About Us (f) "Tommy's Breakfast," Wheels and Wings
2. Where the grocer buys his supplies. (a) "On the Farm," Friends to Know (b) "At the Farm," Friends About Us (c) "The Milk Station," Friends About Us (d) "The Farmer's Garden," Friendly Stories (e) "On the Way with Farmer Brown," Friends to Know (f) "The Old Churn," Wheels and Wings (g) "Our Gifts from the Indians," F1'iends to Know (h) "Billy Boy and the Milk," Joyful Reading (i) "The Apple That Hung On," Wheels and Wings (j) "Uncle Bob's Garden Helpers," Friends to Know (k) "Our Good Friends the Honeybees," Friends to Know
3. Purchasing and transportation by the grocery store. (a) "The Wheel," Wheels and Wings (b) "The Proud Engine," Wheels and Wings (c) "The Big Boat," Wheels and Wings (d) "Animals by Express," Wheels and Wings (e) "The Funny Telephone," Wheels and Wings
4. Cleanliness and accuracy in handling grocery foods. (a) "Clean Food," New Friends (b) "The Grocery," Friends About Us
The outline above is to show how one interest may be treated by employing the use of many different textbooks. All of the examples listed above are taken from the state adopted reading textbooks.
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades
Children of the fourth, fifth and sixth grades enrich their experiences by reading widely. They should have many opportunities for reading different types of materials, and of making their own selections. They should be guided in developing abilities to locate, comprehend, organize and evaluate the materials they read. Reading is not taught in a separate period for every child. Those children who need special help are given remedial reading programs individually, or in a small group.
47

LIBRARY. No classroom is complete without a library table and book shelves filled with numerous books, magazines, news-0-2.; papers, and pamphlets of varied reading materials suited to the comprehension of every child in the group. Children should feel free to select a book and read at will during spare moments. Records of children's free reading make interesting studies for the teacher. These records enable her to become better acquainted with the books and stories children really like. The children should have many opportunities to talk about their favorite poems, books and characters.
The teachers and children should examine the state adopted textbooks and every supplementary reader they can find for recreational reading material. As a timesaver they might list all the stories on a "Good Stories Chart," indicating titles of books, stories and page references. This chart should be placed near the book shelves.
STORY HOUR. Most of the reading is done silently in these grades. There is a place for oral reading in sharing favorite stories and poems with others. This sharing period should be planned for by all those who participate, by reading the selections silently first and studying the words and phrasing until mastery is assured. This period should be one of enjoyment, and an informal classroom environment should contribute to each child's enjoyment.
INDIVIDUAL INVENTORIES. Teachers of these grades should make frequent inventories of the children's progress in reading. There are many types of informal tests which assist in diagnosing a child's ability to understand what he reads. These tests should be made up from materials the children have not seen before. The children should keep records of their own progress.
TEXTBOOKS AND MANUALS. The fourth, fifth and sixth grades have been assigned several reading texts in order that the child may be allowed to exercise some choice in the books he reads and so that he may become familiar with many books and be able to use them profitably. They are designed to stimulate interest in reading, to provide further reference material so that a rudimentary type of research may be carried on, to supply material for recreatory reading, and to teach the child to study.
It is most important for every teacher to have the manuals that accompany these readers. They give good objectives for reading, ways in which deficiencies may be remedied, and ways for using the stories to develop certain skills in study. They are really "methods books" for the teaching of reading. They show
48

clearly the purpose of each selection and any attempt to teach without them will greatly impair the use of the readers.
ORAL AND WRITTEN COMPOSITION
Introduction
RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. Any member of a social group must be able to "receive and transmit" ideas. Language experiences are gained through living, working and playing together. The school day offers many opportunities for expression in speaking and writing. This phase of the elementary school curriculum cannot be handled in one single period during the day.
OBJECTIVES. The main objectives for oral and written composition can be stated very simply: (1) Every child should have ideas to express; (2) every child should develop the ability to convey his ideas understandingly and correctly by speaking and writing.
COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. For a long time English composition, oral and written, has been one of the least interesting subjects taught in the elementary school. The ordinary student has found the task of linguistic expression a dull exercise. The pupil has been forced to observe the rules and niceties of the English language without ever being aware in any vital way of their use to him. The result is that expression through language has been the most formal and artificial of all the school studies. In spite of years of training our students fail to become easy, clear and forceful speakers and writers.
The following are some of the wasteful and ineffective practices of teaching English composition in the elementary school:
(1) Language is taught as a subject aistinct from others. Phrases of usage that have been carefully developed and practiced during the language period are disregarded in the other lessons of the day. This isolated teaching of language in a separate period with topics unrelated to lessons in the other subjects is, in a large part, responsible for pupils' lack of assimilation of language usage and of ability or desire for self-expression.
(2) Too much attention has been given to form and not enough to content. Teachers and pupils have been more concerned about how the ideas were written and spoken rather than the ideas themselves. Talking and writing for its own sake has been encouraged to perfect the mechanics of expression before the child

had anything to speak and write about. Emphasis on the me-

chanics of composition has stifled creative expression.

i.~
"~J

-~--~

(3) Traditional language instruction neglects interests of

the pupils' daily lives. Usually children are not given an oppor-

1

tunity to express their interests in happenings at home or in the

community. Instead they are given an assigned topic on which

they must make a stiff talk. Children are forced to express un-

familiar ideas perpetrated by the textbook or the teacher.

(4) Traditional language instruction neglects the needs of

the pupils' daily life. The same language lesson is taught to the

entire gro.up regardless of the fact that a large proportion of the

class is proficient already in the phase under consideration. In-

struction in usage is too often not pertinent to the pupils' needs.

(5) Research shows that children are insensitive to social

situations that demand language performances. In an analysis of

3500 spontaneous letters written by elementary school pupils

throughout the United States, Fitzgerald found a paucity of let-

ters dealing with congratulations, sympathy, condolence, en-

couragement, and greetings.

(6) The course of study, whether based on a textbook or not,

is disorganized. Some elements of correct usage are developed in

a simple lesson, then left untouched for a considerable period of

time, and finally given a small place in a miscellaneous review

lesson. Current textbooks pile up in one month the total practice

given in the elementary school to various isolated situations.

(7) There has been too much written composition and too

little oral. Added to the mechanical difficulties of written com-

position, capitals, punctuation, margin, indention, spelling and

penmanship, there is present at the moment of writing a self-

consciousness which tends to check spontaneity.

(8) Measurement in line with customary practices has

exalted mechanical and rhetorical elements and has neglected

originality, freshness and creativeness.

(9) The environment of the school with its emphasis on

pedagogic correctness, information-gathering and skill-acquiring

has hindered freedom of expression.

Many schools over the country which are breaking away

from the traditional program are trying to eliminate the afore-

mentioned ineffective practices from their programs of instruc-

tion. They have formulated guiding principles applicable to the

activities of all grades. The successful use of these principles

should go far toward making the program in composition more

functional and less mechanical and meaningless.

(1) Every opportunity for the use of language performance

in connection with other school work should be utilized.

50

(2) The school should set up situations and activities quite similar to those met by the child in life outside the school in order .tpconfront him with stimuli that encourage the normal use of language. These activities, which must be real and important rather than artificial and convenient, will involve correspondence with people in real situations, programs, excursions, construction activities, discussion of actual problems and the individual's own stories and poems. The child should accumulate a variety of real experiences.
(3) An air of freedom and unrestraint, pleasant surroundings, congenial group living and a deep understanding between teacher and pupil should characterize the atmosphere of the school. The child should be encouraged to speak and write in school as naturally and readily as he does outside the school.
(4) The teacher should encourage effort, treat every sort of genuine self-expression with respect, and refrain from too pedagogic corrections.
(5) The child should feel that creativeness is in order, that he is not being asked to conform to a pattern.
(6) Standards for judging letters, records, creative attempts, conversation, storytelling, introductions and other language performances should be arrived at by the children from informal discussions under the guidance of the teacher. There should be no attempt to impose on the child meaningless standards taken from any source.
(7) The teacher should study the language errors made by her pupils. She should have some way of recording them and later analyzing them for individual practice exercises. Each child's attention should be directed to his own difficulties.
(8) There should be adequate distribution of opportunities for practice. The total opportunities for all language performances should be spread carefully throughout the year of a given grade.
GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. Many language experiences grow out of the period devoted to the social studies. Letters must be written to business firms for materials, to friends who have helped make interesting excursions, talks and other activities possible, and plans must be discussed for construction work and assembly periods.
This does not imply there is no time on the schedule designated for language. During the language period the children may prepare talks, discuss plans, write letters, record group activities, write editorials, poems or stories for the class or school paper,
51.

while others may be working on individual problems which need special attention and drill.
. PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USE OF THE STATE ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS. The following are practical suggestions for oral and written composition in grades one through six compiled by the teachers in the University Elementary School. The language texts furnished by the state are mentioned whenever advantageous uses can be made of them.
First Grade
ORAL COMPOSITION. When a child first comes to school his natural tendency is to talk to any friendly listener. Alert teachers foster that tendency in many simple ways from the first day of school by providing the child with ample opportunities to express himself in speech.
FREE CONVERSATION. There should be some time every day for the children to talk to the group about anything they like. This can be encouraged by asking the children to bring things to school to show the group. Toys, books, marbles, pictures, paper dolls, work done at home, signs, calendars, boxes with labels, and numerous other things have appeared in such a program. As one child shows his possession and talks about it the class may ask him questions.
"Where did you get it?" "Where did it come from?" "Who gave it to you?" "How much did it cost?"
Their comments often show their appreciation. "It surely is pretty." "I like the colors." "I got one just like it." "You tell a good story about it."
The value of such social conversation is not to be minimized.
THE CONFERENCE. The class may be called into conference any time the group's reaction is desired by either members of the class or by the teacher. If a section of the class has finished a piece of work and wants the group to see it, or if they need help in order to finish, they bring the work before the group for appraisal. Explanations are made by the workers, questions are asked, comments are made, and suggestions are given. The conference differs from the free conversation in one particular-all conversation during the conference pertains to the question before the house.
62

For instance, one group read and dramatized a story while the others in the class listened. The performers criticized their jpwn performance. The audience was then asked, first, to tell what they liked about the play, and second, how itcould be improved. Some such comments as those following resulted:
"1 like the way the Big Bad Wolf played his part. He made us laugh."
"1 liked the last Little Pig when he went to the fair and rode on the merry-go-round. He went fast!"
"1 liked the Mother Pig. She talked to the little pigs so everybody could hear."
"She was good to the little pigs, too." "1 liked when the wolf fell down the 'chimbley' and then climbed up again and ran away. He howled good!" "Robert didn't know his part." "You 'haf' to know the story good," "Emma didn't talk so's we could hear her," "The first pig wasn't polite like the story said. He didn't say, 'Thank you' for the straw," Such vague general criticisms as, "That play was no good," should not be tolerated. The individual making such a criticism should be required to tell how to improve the play. Such a procedure teaches the child to narrow the subject and to talk to the point. The value of offering only constructive criticism is also emphasized.
SOCIAL CONVERSATION. This pertains especially to children's talking to each other. There may be times during the day when children must work quietly, and when each should be concerned only with his own work, but there should also be some time for friends to talk to each other. The lunch period may be used for talking as well as for health and good citizenship. Talking is a natural accompaniment to eating. Children talk easily and naturally at such a time and, necessarily, voices need not be raised to talk to all the people at one table. A good speaking voice can be cultivated at this time. Again, if groups of children are working together they will talk about the work in hand or other things. If two children straighten the magazines and materials in a cabinet, perhaps they should have an opportunity to talk about what they are doing. If children wash the boards, or clean the washroom, they have a legitimate opportunity to exchange views, ideas, or to just talk, provided their voices are not loud enough to disturb others who are busy. Some schools allow children fifteen minutes in the morning to talk to each other. Social conversation between children should be actively encouraged whenever possible.
68

OTHER OPPORTUNITIES FOR TALKING. When children are ready to read, the pictures in the book may arouse some comments. Sometimes a child is reminded by the pictures of an experience of -c-.2.; his own which he wants to talk about. His interest in reading is heightened if he is allowed to talk about that experience. Frequently pictures in library books and in magazines will be discussed with a neighbor. After a story is read by the teacher the pictures may be shown and some child may tell what this picture is about. Another child comments about the next picture. and so on.
If letters are to be written the children dictate what is to be put into the letter. They mayor may not write the letter.
As children discuss an experience with a view to making a story they must necessarily talk freely. When they decide what phase of the story they will write about they dictate sentences which are placed on the board. Then they reread in order to organize the material they have into a more finished product. With careful guidance from the teacher, continuity, coherence and clarity are obtained.
CORRECTION OF ERRORS. It is as a rule impossible to correct all errors in children's speech. The most obvious and the worst should be corrected frequently, a few, perhaps, always. It seems practical in some situations to work constantly and intensely on a few in each grade, and casually with a greater number. For instance, one teacher of a first grade after taking stock of the children's speech decided to concentrate on:
"I done done" "I seen" "It aint" "dis," "dere," "dat"
Each time a child said, "I seen," he was told, "I saw." "It aint" was corrected constantly by "it isn't"; and "I done done it" by "I have already finished."
Clear, distinct speech (not too loud) should be encouraged at all times. Saying poems gives enunciation great emphasis. "We must hear every word you say. Say every sound in every word if you want to speak distinctly."
VOCABULARY. The vocabulary a child hears not only influences his speech but helps him with his later reading. Adults should use as varied a vocabulary as possible when talking to children. There should be no "talking down" to them by using "simple" words. If these are the "characters" in a play they should be called "characters"; if the class is talking about the
54

"value" of money, "value" is the word to use; "vocabulary" is a good word to use in many first grade situations. "If it is con<t:.venient for you," is a courteous expression not lost on most sixyear-olds if used in suitable situations.
WRITTEN COMPOSITION. There should be little written composition in a first grade. Short notes may be required of first grade children if they are interested to write an invitation to some friend to come to school, or to their parents to come to P. T. A. They also like to write "thank you" notes to people who have given them a party, or asked them in for a short visit. Signs are sometimes needed which can be supplied by the children. Greeting cards are popular for holidays. (Writing, spelling and English are thus taught at the same time.)
SENTENCE SENSE. The development of sentence sense can be begun as soon as children are in school. If a child uses such fragments of sentences as, "When the wolf ran away," or "The big old tree," the teacher may say, "But you didn't tell me anything about the tree; what did it do or what happened to it? 'When the wolf ran away' is only a part of what you meant to tell me. If I said, 'When the sun it hot,' you wonder what I mean but if I say, 'I like to sit in the shade when the sun is hot,' you know what I mean. What do you mean when you say 'when the wolf ran away?' "
To summarize language teaching in the first grade, children should be encouraged to talk at various times during a school day about anything they are interested in. Certain errors should be corrected persistently, several others occasionally; distinct enunciation should be emphasized, and a pleasing tone of voice should be consciously cultivated; very little written work should be required, but for that little the children must have a real motive and a real use.
Second and Third Grades
As a result of the changed viewpoint regarding the function of language in the lower elementary grades, the child's experiences in real-life situations are now made to contribute largely to his language development. The resourceful teacher preserves the child's natural and spontaneous manner of using language and at the same time increases the effectiveness and originality of his expression.
The scope of language work in the second and third grades is stated in terms of the following objectives:
(1) To develop the child's ability to engage effectively in
55

language activities involved in genuine, purposeful

experiences.

-0-2.;

(2) To develop in the child a consciousness of correct lan-

guage usage both in his own expression and of the ex-

pressions of others.

(3) To create within the child an enthusiastic desire to im-

prove his own speech.

(4) To make automatic the use of fluent, correct, and effec-

tive expression in all situations in which language
activities are involved.*

The plan for second and third grade language work follows

that of the first grade, with provisions for added growth in ability

for both written and oral work. However, there should be much

more oral English than written in these grades. The children

should be encouraged to talk freely about their personal experi-

ences and interests. Spontaneity should be emphasized through

the use of storytelling, discussions of pictures, animals, pets, toys,

and current happenings.

The program of language work in the second and third

grades includes training in such needs as:

(1) Conversation: Provision should be made in the daily

program for a definite period in which the children carryon

informal discussions, or for a conversation lesson. The conversa-

tion should include interesting activities experienced by the

children, as for example, excursions, classroom projects, etc. It

is suggested that the group be arranged in an informal manner

and have ample opportunity to organize the ideas they wish to

present.

There are numerous opportunities for using the experiences

of children for topics of conversation, for example:

(a) A trip to the woods, town, greenhouse, grocery

store, etc.

(b) A discussion of some object brought to school by

some child, such as a doll, boat, picture book, etc.

(c) A discussion of current happenings of interest, such

as a class party, chapel programs, bulletin boards,

etc.

(d) A discussion of special holidays, such as Christmas

and St. Valentine's Day.

(e) A discussion of some class project, such as the

planting of bulbs.

(f) A discussion of week-end experiences, either indi-

vidual or group, such as a visit to see grandmother.

(2) Storytelling: Children should be encouraged to tell

*Scott, Congdon, Peet, and Grazer. How To Teach English, Houghton
Mi1lliD Company.

66

stories of personal experiences, favorite stories, or imaginative _...stories. The pupil should be led to understand how to tell a story In an interesting, effective manner as:
(a) Choose a story which he enjoys. (b) Must know the story well. (c) Enliven the story with conversation. (d) Use the language of the characters. (e) Show the feeling by the tone of the voice. In giving reports of books they have read or heard, the child should be encouraged to tell(a) Why the story is interesting. (b) What part of the story is most interesting. (c) Whether or not the pictures are interesting. (d) Whether or not he likes the story.
(e) Whether or not he has read similar stories.*
(3) Dramatizations: Provision should be made for children to plan and actually dramatize original stories, imaginative stories, or favorite stories which they have read.
(4) Announcements, explanations, and directions: The child should be given the opportunity to announce programs, etc., and give explanations in connection with either individual or group experiences. He should be taught to give directions clearly and concisely.
(5) The written language work consists mainly of short, simple sentences about trips, class activities, and objects of interest. Some training is given in writing letters of invitation and thanks.
A textbook in the hands of every child is not necessary in carrying out the above program in language. However, the state adopted text for the second grade, The Little Citizen, by Gibson and Meriwether, can be used in certain language situations:
(1) Stories of lifelike experiences that will serve as interesting topics for conversation.
Through the introduction of two characters, Jean and John, interesting activities, real activities, and natural situations have been provided. In the beginning of the school year such stories as "Back to School," "Jean's Visit," and the poem, "The Traveler," will act as a stimuli for conversation about the summer vacation experiences of the children. Possibly some took a trip, and if so, there will be a good opportunity for the children to make a study of transportation in discussing the methods of traveling, as by train, "bus," airplane, car, etc. Such selections as "How We Travel," "Traveling Years Ago," and the poem, "Cars Go Fast," might be used.
See section on "Library" in the materials on reading for the second grade.
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In connection with the section of the language book that deals with vacation stories in which some questions are given . _c._... ~oncerning the sea, mountains, city, and country it might prove - interesting to allow the children to plan an iniaginary trip in Georgia.
(2) Reading material for groups interested in a particular problem. This information may be summarized and shared with others later in reports and discussions.
(a) Nature: The story, "At School," will be valuable in encouraging children to become keen observers of the world in which they live and to develop an appreciation for nature. A practical suggestion would be to have the list of things in the story supplemented by a collection from each child, and to use these objects of interest in a particular study. For a detailed study of trees, for example, such stories as "Finding Out About Trees," "Your Trees," "Playing Trees," "A Live Oak Tree," "A Pine Exhibit" and the poem, "Tl.e SugarPlum Tree," will furnish information. Other materials on birds and seeds may be used to advantage from the book.
(b) Health: In addition to reading and applying the material in the language book on How to Be Well there are other ways of using it as, for example, the making of posters by the children. There are stories on posters in other parts of the book that could be used in this part of the program. The story, "John's Diary," might interest the children in keeping a diary of the things they do daily to keep healthy.
(c) Social Science: The book contains many informative stories which would serve as reading materials for groups that are interested in social science problems, for example, "The Study of Wool." Such stories as "Wool From Other Animals," "What We Make From Wool," "Your Clothes," "Caring for Your Clothes," and the poem, "Sheep That Keeps Me Warm Today," are included. There are suggestions given for children on how to make wool exhibits, and signs for the exhibit.
(d) Citizenship: The following stories are examples: "Safety Rules," "Good Manners," "The Kind and Polite Thing to Do," "The Flag," etc. Second grade children would enjoy organizing a citizenship club as in "The Kindness to Animal Club" story and "Your Good Citizens Club." Information, such as that in "How to Give the Pledge to the Flag," "A Parade," "Riddles," "A Song," is given. (3) Dramatizations: Suggestions for planning dramatizations are found in "A Book Play," "Robinson Crusoe Play," and "The Spring Play." (4) Guide for children in learning to make announcements,
58

give directions and make explanations. Such stories, in the language book, as "Saying Words Correctly," "Directing People," c~"Makihg a Booklet" will provide the necessary information. - (5) A source of practice exercises for individual pupils who need drill on certain items.
(6) There are about twenty-five poems which could be correlated with citizenship, health, community life, nature, etc., that the children would enjoy. The two pictures, "Miss Bowles" by Reynolds and "Feeding the Hens" by Millet, might be included in an art appreciation lesson.
Another example of how a text should be examined by teachers and pupils for help on many language situations is given in the analysis of the third grade text, Guide Book for Language, by Mary R. Parkman.
(1) Conversation: Stories centered around natural situations and normal interests of the child result in intelligent conversation. There are specific developments of this in "A Corn Party" that could be used in a unit of work in any early American theme, as well as for dramatization. The "Market Gardeners" creates the interest element for any unit where gardening is an interest.
(2) Storytelling: "The Story of Indian Corn" carries out the interest in early American life and arouses an interest in this phase of language work. "Where Is He Going" develops creative ability of children through exciting the imagination. "The Indian Story Tellers" and "The Robin and the White Bear of the Northland" give good examples of standards formulated.
(3) Use of telephone: "Kathleen's Visitors" is an example of what the telephone means to modern life.
(4) Directions, announcements, explanations: "Kathleen's Visitors" aids in formulating value of concise explanations.
(5) Letter writing: "Messages from Bird Friends" furthers interest in letter writing. "Betty's Letter" furnishes a natural situation for use of this phase. "The Rules for Letters" is a concise formulation of standards.
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades
The language program fQr the fourth, fifth and sixth grades reviews the instructional activities of the first three grades. The specific objectives of language teaching in the upper elementary grades are:
(1) To show the child that fluent, spontaneous and natural speaking and writing are valuable assets.
59

(2) To show the child that it is highly desirable to use good English.

(3) To help the child appreciate and enjoy good English in

-~--2.;

the work of others.

(4) To guide the child in establishing habits of correct usage in oral and written language.

Opportunities for carrying out these objectives should arise during the day as a natural outgrowth of interesting experiences. There should be many occasions for using oral and written language in social and natural science, music, art, recreation, literature, and number relationships.
The everyday experiences of a group of children working and playing together should provide the following language situations:

(1) Conversation with an individual, with persons in a group, over the telephone.
(2) Making talks to groups about individual or group experiences, reports on outside reading.
(3) Storytelling. (4) Making announcements, explanations and giving di-

rections. (5) Writing letters, social and business. (6) Writing announcements, advertisem*nts and notices. (7) Writing reports of committee work, conferences,
excursions. (8) Writing summaries of material read or heard. (9) Writing original stories, poems, plays. (10) Dramatizing stories read or written by the individual
or the group. (11) Individual drill on errors of form in speaking and
writing.

The function of language teaching in the elementary grades is to assist the individual pupil in finding a means of expression. No text has been written to meet the language needs of every pupil. Teachers in the elementary school are beginning to depend more and more on social conditions to provide the situations and activities for teaching English, and to use one or several language textbooks as reference books of form and source books of drill and practice exercises for those individuals needing drill on specific items. The intermediate grades have been given two language texts, New Language Goals, by Paul, Sullivan and Lance, and Language Ways, by Shepherd and Parkman.

Shepherd and Parkman state in their foreword that they have "suggested a wide range of possibilities rather than dictating a particular procedure." Since these authors do not provide a

60

procedure, it is clearly evident that they do not intend for the book to be used in a routine, "day to day" and "page to page" manner; but rather as the possibilities present themselves. The s1udy of the organization of a club is not necessarily taught the first week of school because it appears first in the book, but it is taught when there is a need for the organization of a club. Plans are made in November for a Thanksgiving program when there is a need for Thanksgiving programs. Certainly a group of boys will be more interested in learning to write a business letter when a baseball and bat are to be ordered than when they know that the letter they write will never be mailed. The letters of appreciation should be written after some excursion has been taken, after some speaker has kindly responded to an invitation made by the group, or after some gift has been received. Paul, Sullivan and Lance list their business letter writing with this explanation following, "Business Letters-Practice in those you need to write." The use of language material comes out of a natural situation. No provision is made for a situation to fit the subject.
Admitting that there has been too much attention to written composition and too little to oral, each of these texts provides adequate suggestions for oral language composition. Shepherd and Parkman give plans for specific activities in oral composition. They suggest "class discussions of plans, projects and subjects of general interest through clubs." They provide "helps for preparation of reports to the class, brief talks before school, the planning of plays and the telling of stories or anecdotes." Paul, Sullivan and Lance offer practically the same suggestions. Much importance is attached to the judgment of the teacher in determining whether material, as it is presented, is suited to the needs of the group or whether she should, through her own ingenuity, supplement the material so that it will have more value. The teacher should keep in mind the fact that all conversation and oral language is composition, and that this work extends over the entire day. Almost every activity of the day provides material for the study of oral language.
These texts may be used interchangeably and as reference books. For instance, Shepherd and Parkman, in their table of c<mtents, group material in a logical order around problems that confront the group of students as a whole. Paul, Sullivan and Lance give their treatment in more detailed topics, showing clearly where work may be found for a very particular item. This makes Language Ways a good book for use in introducing a subject, while New Language Goals may be referred to for further study of details.
61

Perhaps it will be helpful to give a specific instance showing how these texts may be used so as to take advantage of the strong features of both. If the group is interested in dramatization, careful consideration may be made of the topiC, "Making Plays from Lessons," in Language Ways, Grade VI. New Language Goals does not include this topic, but it does give excellent remedial work in the correct usage of verbs. There probably will be need for individual drill work along this line during the writing of the play. Suppose the child needs remedial work in the use of verbs; the teacher should not stop the work of the entire group for a study of a verb, but she should refer the child to page forty-three of New Language Goals, Grade VI, for help. It will be wise for the teacher to make a careful study of the texts in order to use them to the best advantage.
Another example of how language texts can be used is given in the following analysis. The two state adopted texts for the fifth grade were analyzed for helpful material on the content subjects. This material may be used for individual reports and group discussions.
(1) Science
(a) Language Ways "Watching Caterpillars" "Our Trip to Beaver Creek" "Bird Neighbors" "Ways of Heating"
(b) New Language Goals
"Making a Bird House" "A Squirrel Gathering Nuts" "Messenger Dogs" "The Hare and the Tortoise" "The Humming Bird" "Toads"
(2) Reading for pleasure
(a) New Language Goals
"What Frank Had in His Pocket" "The King, the Nobleman, and the Peasant""After the Battle" "An Ax to Grind"
(b) Language Ways
"Knights of Long Ago, and Today" "The Approach to the Castle" "The Need for Castles"
62

(3) Poetry
(a) New Language Goals "Travel" "Hiawatha's School"
(b) Language Ways "A Song" "The Treasure of the Wise Man" "Smiles and Tears"
(4) Library books
(a) Language Ways "Books to Read"
(b ) New Language Goals "Books to Read"
(5) Citizenship
(a) New Language Goals "Habits of Courtesy" "What Should You Do in Case of Fire"
(b) Language Ways "Making a Play" "The Flagmakers" "Making a Flagday Program"
(6) Social Studies
(a) Language Ways "Telling How" "Value of Forests" "Paving a Street" "Pioneer Day" "Plans for Special Days" "Books of Good Stories"
(7) Use of Dictionary
(a) New Language Goals "Use of the Dictionary"
(b) Language Ways "Following a Word Guide"
Since it is evident that the texts are not to be used with day to day assignments, but interchangeably for suggestions, reference material, and individual drill work, it can be seen that a copy of each text placed in the hands of every child is not essential. The child must see that language work is no longer the formal, me-
63

chanical process of former years, but that it is a tool for him to use
in carrying on his daily interests and activities.
SPELLING
Introduction
RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. Spelling is a toll needed by every individual in transmitting ideas, and in selfexpression through the written word. Correct spelling is essential in all written language, and instruction in the ability to spell correctly is necessary in freeing the child from handicaps in written composition.
OBJECTIVES. The objective of teaching spelling is to develop in each pupil a conscious desire and ability to spell correctly the
words he uses in written language.
COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. Modern research has contributed materially to a change in the methods of teaching spelling. The results of many investigators have brought about revisions in the words to be studied, the presentation of words, and the methods of study. Spelling is no longer looked upon as an oral exercise, an end in itself. Modern education has centered attention on the functional and purposeful approach to spelling in written composition. Words based on the social needs of adults and the practical requirements of children are chosen for study rather than a long list of words based on word difficulty. Spelling is not restricted to word lists but includes all phases of written composition. More time is spent in study than in word testing. Dictionary practice is begun early and fewer rules for spelling are taught. The number of words given in daily and weekly assignments is much smaller and study periods are distributed systematically and psychologically. Children are taught to develop a consciousness for correct spelling and to diagnose their own spelling needs.
GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. The teacher's place in spelling instruction has changed. Formerly, she "heard the spelling" of the words the children learned in any manner they devised for themselves. The teacher is more concerned with individual spelling needs. She shows the child a clear-cut performance in word study that enables him to see, hear, pronounce, spell, build and find words. She devises means by which individual progress
may be stimulated. She creates a situation conducive to concen-
trated effort during study and makes frequent checks on spelling accomplishment.
64

First Grade
--:z..;SPELLING AND WRITING. (See writing for the first grade.) Spelling enters this grade only incidentally. After children have progressed from writing single letters to writing whole words after they are erased from the board, one of them may announce, "I can write 'Dear' without looking. I can write 'Mother,' too. Look! Itsays, Dear Mother." Then the teacher can begin to write the whole word on the board, have children write it in the air, have another close look, and erase with some such direction as:
"Now try to write 'Dear.' Go as far as you can but if you are not sure just stop and wait. I'll put it on the board again for anyone who needs it." The teacher looks at all papers, then replaces the word for those who need it, they look at it again, the word is erased, and the children try again. This may be repeated as often as necessary. Then when the words are on the board again the children compare their work with that on the board and criticize their own work. "My first letter isn't fat enough." "Mine looks all right." "Mine is clean." "I made the last letter too little. It is less than any of the others. It ought to be just as big as the second one." As the year draws to a close the children will probably have learned to write several words without help. These will be the ones they have written again and again. Among them may be Mother, Dear, please, come, to, thank you, we, I, love, their own names, the date. Sometime during the year, preferably in the latter half, the children have learned the letters, not in order perhaps but have picked up names for most of the alphabet.
Second and Third Grades
SPELLING CONSCIOUSNESS. In the second and third grades, spelling should be taught in connection with language and penmanship. The child has some inclination or urge to write his thoughts and experiences. During this early composition-writingspelling experience the child is encouraged to ask for, rather than guess, the words which he cannot spell. As he begins to see the need for spelling in writing, word study should be introduced. The state adopted spelling textbook for each grade (Spelling for Everyday Use, Steadman, Garrison.and Bixler) contains a list of words common to the reading and speaking vocabularies of the second and third grade child.
The authors of these books have organized an efficient and
65

practical program for teaching spelling. A detailed explanation of -<t.; the program is given in the foreword of each book.
WORD LISTS. There is no strict adherence to one list of words for all pupils of a given age or grade level. The modern school restricts the list to a small number, but includes the most frequently used words with differentiation on the basis of pupil progress. The child's immediate spelling needs dictate his first word lists. The centers of interest, units of work, or projects will determine word lists for the children in the second and third grades. It is suggested that the teacher use the material in the state adopted spelling text as the minimum list for word study in the grades. In making the additional lists of words for individuals and groups the teacher should observe the following cautions:
(1) Will the pupils need the word in writing? (2) Will they likely use it? (3) Do they use it in speaking? (4) Is it a child's word? (5) Is it within the ability of the child of the particular
grade for which it is selected?
STUDY PERIOD. The spelling lesson, formerly a testing period, is now an opportunity for study. Several approaches, visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic, are provided for word study. The teacher organizes the study period of the children so that the child is independent of the teacher except for individual problems. It is suggested that the teacher make a large reading chart, such as the following, to serve as an outline of study.
(1) Look closely at the first word in your lesson and pronounce the word aloud with a light pause after each syllable.
(2) Think of a sentence using the word. (3) Lqok at the way the wo,rd is spelled. (4) Close your eyes and try to see the word; whisper the
letters to yourself while your eyes are closed. (5) Write the word without looking at the book. (6) Open your book and see if you wrote the word correctly. (7) If you wrote the word correctly, write it three times.
To make the chart more attractive the children might draw pictures to illustrate the various steps on the chart, and attach them to it.
ORAL SPELLING. There is less oral spelling than written due to the fact that the motor response made in writing reinforces learning. However, opportunity should be given for oral spelling
66

since it forces the child to hear the letter names in succession and . t~holcl in mind auditory and visual images of the word.
USE OF DICTIONARY. The habit of using the dictionary as an aid to spelling should be developed. It is a neglected practice to fail to use the dictionary in the primary grades. The second grade child may make his own dictionary and arrange in alphabetical order the difficult words with which he needs help. The dictionary may be made attractive by allowing the children to make colored covers of their choice. A practical suggestion for a dictionary in the second grade is included in the state adopted spelling textbook. The introductory material in the textbook presents the plan of a "word hospital." For detailed plans of the dictionary see page XXVI.
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades
Teachers of the fourth, fifth and sixth grades should keep in mind these characteristics of a well-planned spelling lesson:
(1) Research has shown that spelling lessons of fifteen minutes duration for these grades are more effective than longer ones.
(2) A few words should be taught well. (3) Correct spelling of a word one time is not sufficient to
indicate mastery of the word. Reviews should be spaced to insure the learning of a word. (4) A preliminary test enables the pupil to discover what words he needs to study. There is no economy of time in having a pupil study words he already knows. (5) The first step in presenting a word for the first time should be correct. Correct pronunciation of a word is essential to learning its spelling. (6) The study period is a learning period for individuals, a time to locate each pupil's difficulties.
Teachers should consider the methods of instruction given in the foreword of the text they are using. The words and exercises of each book are arranged to serve most effectively the methods selected by the authors and recommended by them. Steadman, Garrison, and Bixler, in Spelling for Everyday Use, have worked out a plan that is most beneficial to the teacher in considering the modern phases of spelling instruction. They have (1) used carefully chosen words in the light of scientific research, (2) provided for the popular text-study method of teaching, (3) spaced reviews so that the child encounters a word at least four times, (4) made ample provision for individual instruction through the keeping
67

of individual spelling books and progress charts, (5) provided -e-L.; words that have practical value. In addition to this, they have
worked out a general plan of study that leads the child to "see, hear, pronounce, think, and write the word." They have provided steps for self-active study. Many interesting devices have been given for stimulating interest in individual correction. A teacher who is interested in following one of the best plans for the teaching of spelling may wisely use the one suggested by the authors of this text.
The teacher will not, however, confine her spelling instruction solely to the word list in the text, but rather will she carry it over into words that the child uses in his everyday activities. A child studying communicable diseases will certainly be interested in learning to spell the words "communicable," "prevention," "measles," etc. She should determine the spelling needs of each pupil as far as possible from his oral discussions, written exercises, letters, reports, and expressed interests. She will endeavor to correct any errors by requiring economical methods of study, by drill in pronunciation, by improving handwriting, and by training the child to reread papers of this type before handing them in. Words missed in written work should be included in the review words, just as words from the formal list.
The outcomes of spelling instruction should often be considered by the teacher. She might attempt to evaluate it by asking questions similar to these:
(1) Has the child been stimulated in his desire to improve his spelling in order to express himself correctly?
(2) Has the child improved his vocabulary? Has the list of words he uses in written expression grown?
(3) Has he formed the habit of using the words he studies from day to day?
(4) Has he developed effective study habits? (5) Does he attempt to learn the meaning of a word without
dictionary assignment? (6) Does he work on his specific difficulties? (7) Is he receiving the right instruction in the use of the
tools he needs in expressing feelings, in painting word pictures, and in sharing experiences?
WRITING
Introduction
RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. Writing should be regarded as a tool for the expression of real thoughts and ideas.
68

Instead of writing being taught in the elementary school by iso~fated lessons in penmanship, or eliminating it from the school's program, attention should be given to the purposeful approach to writing. Every conceivable means should be employed by the teacher to motivate the teaching of handwriting so that the child will become writing conscious and demand for himself a greater proficiency in the use of the skill as he needs it.
OBJECTIVES. The objective for teaching writing can be stated in one sentence. Every child should learn to write legibly with a sufficient amount of speed.
COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. Many so-called progressive schools have abandoned penmanship drills from their programs altogether. The child writes when he has ideas to express. Writing is regarded as a tool to be used when needed and any instruction to improve the legibility of writing is given in a very informal and incidental manner. Consequently the child comes to disregard the mechanics of writing and the ability to write legibly becomes of little importance to him.
Other schools of the conservative type adhere closely to penmanship manuals, giving isolated writing lessons to groups of children. Much time is spent on making perfect "ovals" and "push-pulls" in the air, on paper and on imaginary materials. Obsolete writing pens are used from the second grade through the sixth. The child may have a fountain pen but he cannot use it during writing periods. The content for the drill exercises is chosen from the manual entirely with no attention given to the writing the child does during the remainder of the day. Every child in the group spends the same amount of time on the same page every day. The instruction is given to the group rather than to the individual.
GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. The content of the drill exercises may be determined in this manner: (1) Select a specimen of the child's writing; (2) analyze the specimen with the child for legibility of writing; (3) note the formation of letters, movement, spacing, uniformity of alignment, uniformity of slant, and quality of line; (4) select the items that cause trouble; (5) plan remedial exercises to correct the weaknesses in the child's writing. If a child is able to write rapidly and maintain good quality he should be excused from the practice periods during the week. The number of practice periods per week will depend on the amount of practice needed by each child in the group.
In planning the remedial exercises for those students who need them an effort should be made to avoid the evil effects of
69

strain and fatigue. Data are available to show that best results -<t.; are secured in well distributed practice periods ten or fifteen
minutes long.
USE OF THE MANUAL. The pupil's manual of the Progressive Course in Handwriting may be used by the pupil to study the correct writing position, the correct formation of letters, words and figures. The manual becomes the reference book on letter, word and figure formation which will enable the child to progress at his own rate.
The two charts that accompany the teacher's manual may be used by the child to measure from time to time his own writing and analyze those defects in his writing which prevent legibility.
BEGINNING WRITING
Manuscript
Many schools prefer manuscript to cursive writing for one, two or even three years. It is less complicated and can be used to better advantage in reading charts, tests, etc.
The teacher's manual can be used to good advantage. Teachers should practice making the letters of all words exactly according to directions. It is necessary to know where to start making a letter, how each stroke is executed and how many times the pencil is raised from the paper, so that when directions are given to the children there can be no mistaking the exact meaning. The directions for making a letter should always be given the same way.
FREE MOVEMENT. When children begin to write they need space for free movement. (Manuscript writing is freehand drawing.) How much space each child needs is an individual problem depending upon the child's muscular co-ordination. Some children will use an ordinary 8" x 11" sheet of paper to write one short sentence while another can put twice as much in the same space. Since this free movement is essential to good writing children should not be unduly curbed. A blank sheet of paper or blackboard without lines is practical.
POSTURE IS IMPORTANT. The manual places emphasis on writing position. The directions are clear and should be followed. It is very important that children be at ease; strain is never conducive to ease or to good writing.
IMPORTANT THINGS TO WATCH. The things a teacher should watch at this stage are: (1) relative size of letters-the tall ones
70

should be twice as high as the small ones; (2) packing-the letters within a word should be placed close together; (3) the form:flitters should be made correctly, not too "fat" or "skinny," and should be begun from the correct point each time; (4) spacethe space between words should be such as decisively separates them; (5) general neatness should be stressed at all times. Dirty, smeared or blurred papers should never be used. All these points can be emphasized by the teacher as she writes for the children.
"The first letter in the word is a big one, twice as big as the next one will be. So we make a tall, straight soldier beginning at the top-we pick up our pencil, begin at the top and put on him a big hump-so-(D). That hump should be big and fat-it really is half a circle." "Now make it in the air. Away up, straight down; pick up your pencil, begin at the top again, put on the big fat hump. (Do this for every letter.) The next letter close to this one is small-only half as big. Starting close to this one we begin about the middle of this letter, straight across and around, leaving the gate open just a little bit. (e) (De) The next is the same size as the second one and begins here-all the way around and close with a straight gate. (a) (Dea) The last one is also smallthe same size as the two just made. Start at the top, straight down and put a big hook at the top (r) (Dear)." "Now the important thing in beginning a new word is space between the word we have and the next one. So move over a space and begin here (Dear M-)." (An exaggerated space may be used to impress its importance on the child.)
WRITING CONTENT. The "writing lesson" used as a practice period has proven its uselessness. Writing may playa part in many activities; it is a means to an end and never an end in itself. Therefore children should not be expected to write unless they have something to say. Their names are important, as is the date. Necessarily the names will not wait until every letter has been practiced if they are to be used by the child before the middle of the school term. Other words than names and dates are important. In a practical situation children can begin to write when they realize the importance of communicating to people not present. If they want to write (and decorate) a Thanksgiving card or a Christmas greeting there is no reason why they can not be given a lesson which consists of the words they want to use, as "Merry Christmas to You," "Happy Thanksgiving," or other greetings. Invitations to P. T. A. to visit the school, to come to a party, an-
71

nouncements to be put on bulletin boards, signs, and "thank you" letters are all practical and give a real motive for writing well.
-::--.,-.1...:.
If at this time of writing, letters are not well formed the teacher may give immediate practice on the letters. The next time these letters are needed she can remind them of the difficulty and suggest a remedy-
"You make this letter (a) too skinny. He is small but round and fat. Make him fat and close with a straight gate."
After notes are written children may show their work to the class provided it is neat and clean. The children set up their standards for writing and judge their own work. They should compare their work with the teachers, learn to see their own mistakes and be taught to improve them. By the end of the year they should be able to give reasons why they think one paper is better written than another.
CAUTION. Writing is not closely allied to reading. Only in a certain rare type of disability do reading authorities recommend that children write the words in their reading lesson. They should write much the same type of thing that an adult writes as signs, letters, notes, greeting cards, etc. Manuscript writing used by the teacher in making charts, posters, tests and other reading material that the children read (but do not write) has been proved to be of greater efficiency in reading than has cursive writing.
Second and Third Grades
"Modern goals in penmanship teaching differ from the transitional in that children now write, not for the sake of imitating a set model, but for the sake of conveying ideas. The first step is to stimulate children to a purpose in writing, and second, to so equip them that they will attack their writing problems intelligently."
Since handwriting is a skill, the teacher cannot be too careful about having children build correct habits from the very beginning. Any teacher who teaches writing should understand the problems of hlimdwriting and never allow poor handwriting to be placed before the children as an example or model. .
TRANSITION FROM MANUSCRIPT TO CURSIVE. Some schools prefer to continue into the second grade the use of manuscript writing as the tool for written expression. The transition from manuscript to cursive writing may readily be made whenever it seems desirable, if the change is gradual and to the best advantage of the child in writing his own ideas. Care must be taken that the child will not lose in fluency of thought by a change that calls for
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sudden concentration on the acquisition of new letter forms.
--2..; WRITING MATERIALS. During the primary grades the child should have ample opportunities to write on the blackboard. It is recommended that the child continue to write on the blackboard and not on paper until desirable habits are formulated. The time at which the child should begin writing on paper will depend on the child's maturity.
POSTURE. Good posture at the desk and blackboard should be stressed until it becomes a habit. Good posture is essential for good physical development, and is favorable to an easy, fluent movement in writing.
DRILL. Formal group drill has no place in the primary grades in handwriting. If the child is having difficulty with writing, the teacher should study the writing of the child carefully and give the necessary help to the child. Drill for individual children should include letter formation, spacing, slant, and alignment.
The state adopted handwriting manuals may be used most effectively as reference books to:
(1) Illustrate proper position or posture during writing. The position illustrations are included on the first page of the manual in picture form.
(2) Demonstrate good letter and figure formation, spacing, slant, and alignment. Examples of the above qualities are shown throughout the book.
(3) Furnish some drill in addition combinations and the handling of money-for example, 5 cents, 1 nickel, etc. Supplementary material in making change and writing bills for an activity on the "Grocery Store" might be introduaed here.
(4) Serve as an aid for individual handwriting problems in copying or writing group experiences, as the following:
Marguerite's Doll
Marguerite brought her doll to school. Her name is Mary. She has blue eyes, golden hair, and rosy cheeks. She is dressed in yellow. The doll will sing "Mary Had a Little Lamb." We thank Marguerite for bringing her to school. Quite often after a group has composed a story they like to write it and carry it home to their mothers. All the problems of handwriting occur in such a situation. If the child has the manual to refer to for letter formations, spacing, particularly the size of
73

letters, etc., then many problems are eliminated immediately and do not call for special attention.
-:;--.,-~
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades
As children advance to the upper elementary grades, the amount of writing required necessarily increases. Signs of disability, or continuous, immature writing habits should be discouraged. Practice should be differentiated, giving poor writer~ more guidance, and excusing satisfactory writers from drill periods.
The teacher of the intermediate grades keep these questions in mind in setting up standards for penmanship with the pupils:
(1) Is the child learning to write legibly? (2) Does he write with sufficient speed for all practical
purposes? (3) Is he becoming conscious of improving the legibility of
his writing?
Handwriting instruction in the fourth, fifth and sixth grades deals with the correction of specific difficulties found when a study of the individual's writing is made. The writing period should not be the former mechanical, isolated period of the day when desks were cleared, the fountain pen put away and a strained position assumed for fifteen minutes of writing drill under very stiff and austere guidance, but the writing period should be a time used by the individual for remedial purposes. To show how the text may be used, a specific example is given.
The teacher should analyze with the child an example of his most recent writing. Together the teacher and child should compare the writing with the diagnostic scale and look for any difficulties that exist in joining letters of a word, in letter formation, in uniformity of slant, in height of letters, and in speed of writing. The child should record the difficulties that need immediate attention. The penmanship drills that follow should center on these difficulties. The periods should be of varying lengths for different individuals because certain children need far more drill than others.
The teacher should use every means to motivate handwriting. She should correlate the work with other school activities so that the child will be confronted with real situations which show a need for good penmanship. The children should be allowed to discuss informally the value of good handwriting both socially and in business. Much of the written work of this grade should be of a type that is taken from experiences the children have actually
74

had. Provision should be made often for the child to measure his writing by the use of the diagnostic scale and by tests for speed and quality. This should enable the child to see the progress he ~~as made so that he will think the drill lessons on specific difficulties have not been in vain.
Every teacher should make a careful study of the manual. It includes many practical helps, in addition to the outline necessary for the teaching of writing. Some of these things are: "Methods and Devices," "Length of Writing Period," "The LeftHanded Child," "Incentives," "Graphs for Measuring Handwriting," and "Type Lessons."
ARITHMETIC
Introduction
RELATION TO SCOPE OF THE CURRICULUM. A knowledge of number relations is essential to the individual in two basic aspects of living, earning one's livelihood and receiving and transmitting ideas and commodities. A member of present-day society should have a thorough understanding of the uses of money, measurement and number relations, and a skill in using these tools.
OBJECTIVES. The objectives of arithmetic instruction in terms of the persistent problems are: (1) to give such mathematical knowledge as an intelligent citizen of our contemporary society needs; (2) to develop the habit of accuracy, logical procedure, perseverance and reliance; (3) to develop an appreciation of number as a means of accurate thought, an ideal of precision and truth.
COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE PRACTICES. The traditional program in arithmetic is highly formalized. The materials for presentation are frequently uninteresting to children. They are above the maturity levels of the children and they have little social utility. Drill is the prime method of instruction. The typical pupil understands little of the lessons in arithmetic and cares less. There is a growing dislike for arithmetic which becomes progressively worse as the problems become more difficult with every year. Teachers and principals have credited every school failure to arithmetic, and psychologists have credited the majority of the delinquent cases to failure in this one subject.
The schools which are taking steps away from the traditional program are shifting the emphasis from computation as such to the utilization of the pupil's experiences as a basis for instruction in number. They are shifting from an excessive amount of drill
75

on manipulation to an understanding of concept and number relations. They are going beyond the textbook and workb00k to help the pupil interpret his own everyday experiences. The -2,; . teachers in the more progressive schools are abandoning the class plan of instruction, the use of uniform study, drill periods, recitations and assignments for the entire class, for individual instruction adapted to the mathematical needs of the pupils. The schools are gradually abandoning the practice of teaching arithmetic before the children are ready for it. They allow a wider spread of time between the preliminary teaching of a topic and its ultimate mastery.
GENERAL TEACHING TECHNIQUES. Many pupils in school learn arithmetic as a mass of isolated and unrelated facts. Through constant drill and persistent effort they acquire skill in the four fundamental operations, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, but they fail to recognize the nature and meaning of these operations and are unable to apply them to practical, real life problems. Utilization of the pupil's in and out of school experiences vitalizes the instruction in arithmetic, making it more meaningful and less mechanical.
Arithmetic can be found in the activities of children: (1) in the study of various problems of social and natural science as measuring and pricing the amounts of materials needed; (2) on trips and excursions taken to various places, as the prices of articles in grocery stores and the cost and maintenance of a department of public health; (3) in home situations, as bank accounts, growing a garden, selling magazines and newspapers, running errands, furnishing a room, the family budget, and personal allowances; (4) in school problems, as operating a lunch room, candy, paper, coat hanger and rummage sales, Halloween carnivals and benefit programs.
Very young children are interested in number and should have opportunities for using it. For them number is the association of language with ideas of quantities. They should have a wealth of related experiences about number facts as real needs arise out of their activities. Real experiences precede the learning of number relationships for small children. Number concepts must be defined and number language must be used with increasing precision.
The first important job of the teacher in the primary grades is to recognize the preschool number experiences of her pupils and to plan many similar ones. She may provide for children who have had more limited experience with number.
Children in the upper elementary grades should have increas-
76

ing amounts of formal learning leading to the control of the processes because the functional experiences alone are insufficient. T@ social and economic phases of mathematics should receive coIisiderable attention. The technical and general language relating the process to the number experience is important.
Teachers in the upper elementary grades are apt to neglect the fostering of number concepts. They put all their emphasis on skill in computation, thinking that the number concepts have been established in the primary grades. This is an unfortunate mistake. Number concepts grow slowly. Growth in the understanding of mathematical concepts is never complete.
Time has been wasted in the elementary school on continued practice of materials that are already overlearned as a result of the class plan of instruction. It is essential for the teacher to discover through a careful diagnosis of arithmetic abilities of individuals the combinations that are not learned and to provide the necessary remedial measures. This does not imply that the teacher should assign a group of problems and command that they be done. One weakness of so-called individual instruction is the apparent lack of genuine instruction. In a wholesome schoolroom situation pupils can be directed to recognize their own deficiences and to keep a record of the exercises with which they have difficulty.
HOMEWORK. The question of homework is treated here for several reasons. Most of the so-called homework is an assignment of arithmetic examples. Many teachers ask the question, "Should I assign homework?" Children in the upper elementary grades frequently come to the teacher's desk with this question, "Mama told me to bring my arithmetic home, will you please tell me what to work?"
Homework should not be assigned as punishment. It should not be just "busy work" with no purpose in view for pupil or teacher. When homework is of the drill and practice type the processes involved should be understood by the pupils and the amounts should not be excessive. Homework is best and most functional when the pupils frame the questions themselves, and it becomes a voluntary self-instructive and self-corrective activity.
PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USE OF THE STATE ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS. A textbook which has given attention to step by step developments of processes and the major causes of pupil difficulty is an invaluable aid to teacher and pupil. The textbook may be used as: (1) an aid in presenting new processes and materials; (2) a systematic arrangement of drill and practice materials; (3) inventory and practice experiences; and (4) an arrangement
77

of reviews over previously taught materials. A good textbook saves the teacher time and energy. Danger exists when teachers depend too much on the textbook and unreal, monotonous and -~~ stereotyped teaching results. The textbook is most successfully used as a source of supplementary materials, a guide and a reference book.

First Grade

ARITHMETICAL CONCEPTIONS. The young child's needs for

number will depend upon the community in which he lives and

upon his maturity. Even as early as the first grade he has some

use for number but he has many needs for arithmetical concep-

tions that have little or nothing to do with numbers as such. The

child's comprehension of numbers and their uses depends upon

his maturation to a great extent. During the process of growth

he should acquire clear meanings for such terms as:

in front of

circle

behind

back of

straight line (or row) before

above

the other

in a row

under, underneath each

near, nearer

below

all

far, farther

across

next

beyond

between

left

less,more

at the top

right

bigger

at the bottom

lower right corner

long, tall, high

in the middle

upper left corner

short, low

These terms can be used informally and as they are needed in

the children's work and play. The alert teacher will find many

ways and many times during the day when such terms can be used.

"Put your name at the top of the page."

"Write the date below your name."

"Make your picture in the middle of the page."

"Make your foreground and background afte:r you have fin-

ished the main characters in the picture."

"Put your name on the back of your picture."

(In writing) "Begin your first word on the left side of the

paper near the top. Make the other words to follow

after until the space is filled to the right side, then begin

again on the left side below the first line."

"Go around people instead of in front of them if possible."

"Put your chairs back of the front row."

"Keep your chairs in a straight row."

"Make a big circle."

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COUNTING. Counting is a common need of children even before they come to school. Many of them are quite proficient .. _~hen they first arrive. Many situations arise by which they may be given opportunities to count.
"How many people at your table? How many chairs do you need ?"
"How many pieces of paper?" "How many books do you need for this group?" "How many children are at school today?" "How many girls? Boys?" "How many more do we have today than yesterday?" "How many marbles has Jim?" "How many pencils are in the box?" "Are all the paint brushes in the holder?" "How many dolls do we have?" "Are there enough napkins for all?" "Bring me six books." "I need three pencils." "Please give me five sheets of paper." The child will use some fractions, too. "I gave him part of my lunch." "He gave me half of an apple." "I have a piece of pie." "Jane let me have the bigger part." "My mother said she wanted half a dozen eggs." It is necessary to designate the order of articles if directions are clearly given. "Bring me the can from the first shelf." "Put the paper in the lower shelf of the second cabinet." "Please leave the nails in the second drawer of the work
table." "I am first! Second! Third!" etc.
READING NUMBERS; RELATIVE VALUE OF NUMBERS. Both of these can be taught as the children use books. "What story do you want to read? Look in the table of contents. What page is it on? Is that a great many pages or just a few? Will you turn a page at a time or can you turn many pages?"
"Now, what page have you? 86? The page you want is 69? Which way will you turn to find it? Watch your numbers. Are you near the number or very far from it?"
The children will probably begin to write numbers as chances arise and opportunities are given. '.'We have 27 people here today." "Can you write 27, Jim?" "Write your age on the board." "Write the date."
79

Number booklets insure to some degree that the child understands how many a certain number designates. "How many apples -~~ in the basket?" "10 apples." "Write the number and draw ten apples after it." As they understand such a procedure they may number booklets, writing the numbers on the left of the page and drawing objects after each number.
MONEY. During the year children will have money. They may count it, tell its value, what they intend to buy with it.
Second and Third Grades
In the primary grades there is less direct teaching of number facts and processes which are not linked to child activities and genuine number situations. No child should receive formal lessons in arithmetic until he can count things and sense numbers accurately. It is unfruitful to force the pace in number instruction of young children, since experience has shown that primary knowledge and skill develop with mental growth. Results are better when the first three school years contain little formal arithmetic, and the children engage in projects involving numbers, as keeping the grocery store, computing the cost of trips and excursions, operating a school bank, building a puppet stage, building bookcases for the room library, playing games such as tenpins, running relays, and other games that can be scored.
The specific objectives of the second and third grade arithmetic are:
(1) To begin the development of an appreciation of the need for arithmetic in life activities;
(2) To develop the ability to us~ effectively those number facts needed for participation in the various activities of the grade in out-of-school situations;
(3) To develop the ability to make change, tell time, keep scores, and use common measures needed in life experiences;
(4) To develop facility and accuracy in the use of such addition and subtraction skills as second and third grade children encounter in practical situations;
(5) To enlarge the vocabulary of the child for expressing number ideas, as for example, "twice as much," "much smaller," "few," "less," "difference," "sum," "equal," etc.;
(6) To provide systematic daily drills for individual instruction. Drill on combinations and number processes should be given as it is required by the child's need in performing computations in problems expeditiously, but the
80

child should not be given all the combinations at one

time. There are a variety of ways to make necessary

--2.;

drills interesting by using games, flash cards, plays, etc.

The arithmetic instruction of the second and third grades is

closely integrated with that of the first grade. There are two

major problems for the teacher of the second or third grade in

arithmetic instruction: (1) to examine the previous records of the

children and record the status of number knowledge of each individual, and (2) to utilize the numerous number learning situa-

tions which appear in the everyday experiences of school life,

as for example,

(1) Telling time;

(2) Reading the thermometer in the school to keep the proper temperature;

(3) Looking up dates on the calendar and counting the

number of days, or weeks, or months, to dates or occur-

ences which are of interest; (4) Counting and passing out books, pencils, papers, and

other materials;

(5) Finding house numbers, room numbers, locker numbers,

numbers of coat hangers, post-office box numbers, seat numbers, looking up telephone numbers, locating cars by

license numbers; (6) Measuring inches, feet and yards; (7) Buying and selling the school milk supply, operating a

rummage sale, giving a Halloween party;

(8) Buying and selling Christmas seals, conducting Red

Cross campaigns, selling infantile paralysis buttons;

(9) Collecting and writing the hot lunch slips for children.

The schoolroom should provide for these varied opportuni-

ties in the use of numbers. They may range from the simplest

activities such as the performing of routine school room duties as

mentioned before, to lifelike activities which last for several weeks, as the building and operation of a grocery store. A text-

book may be used effectively in the program since there is a need

for many oral problems which involve the use of some of the

simple fundamentals of arithmetic, but are definitely in the read. ing vocabulary of the pupils. Examples:

(1) To furnish a variety of interesting oral problems that

might be used in connection with some project or ac-

tivity of interest to the group, as for example:

The Grocery Store (a) Building the grocery store.

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The material on "The Use of the Ruler" (See state

adopted arithmetic textbook.) might be used to gain

-0--2.;

a knowledge as to the measuring of the boards for

building shelves, cashier's counter, etc.

(b) Purchasing necessary supplies to be used in the

building of the grocery store.

The following stories are good oral problems which

might easily be used in connection with (b).

(1) "A Penny Store."

(2) "Buying Lunches."

(3) "Buying Toys."

(4) "Buying Easter Presents."

(5) "Amy's Doll House."

(c) Making of toy money for grocery store purposes.

(1) "Cent, Nickel, and Dime."

(2) "Counting Money."

(3) "The Order of Numbers."

(d) The operation of the grocery store.

(1) "Making Change."

(2) "Selling Flowers."

(3) "How Addition Helps Subtraction."

(4) "Buying by the Dozen."

(5) "Buying by the Pound."

(6) "Pint and Quart."

(2) To furnish additional material which might be in-

tegrated with the reading program; for example, such

interesting topics for conversation as,

(a) "At the Beach."

(b) "A Birthday Party."

(c) "Playing Tenpins."

There are numerous stories like the above which could easily be used in the reading period. For example, when the children are reading "Nancy's Party" in the state adopted reading text for the second grade, Wheels and Wings and similar stories in the other reading books, the arithmetic book might be introduced as another reference material.
(3) To furnish a systematic arrangement of drill and practice materials, and to aid the teacher in the presentation of new materials.

There are many practice drills scattered throughout the book which might be selected and used for individual instruction.

Note: All the selections and examples cited in the above are
found in the state adopted arithmetic book for the second grade, Number Primer, Upton.

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Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grades
The two major objectives in arithmetic instruction for these c2; grades are: .
(1) The development of an understanding and an appreciation of how arithmetic functions in daily life.
(2) The development of skill in computation and problem solving.
The children of the fourth, fifth and sixth grades of the University of Georgia Elementary School have found arithmetic essential for satisfying participation in such activities as:
(1) Filling out lunch slips, making change; (2) Keeping daily temperature records; (3) Keeping height and weight charts; (4) Working out balanced diets; (5) Measuring the perimeter of the school building in
school improvement projects; (6) Measuring walks, and spacing brick for bordering; (7) Timing trips and excursions; (8) Earning money for trips and excursions; (9) Measuring cloth, wood, cardboard and other construc-
tion materials; (10) Learning how to measure rainfall; (11) Reading music; (12) Keeping score in games; (13) Timing activities of the school day; (14) Timing practice periods in music at home; (15) Budgeting allowances; (16) Keeping the accounts of the Elementary School
Council; (17) Planning class and school parties; (18) Marketing milk and butter and running errands for
mother; (19) Preparing food for baby; (20) Making candy; (21) Buying tools and seed for a vegetable garden; (22) Weighing milk, butter and groceries; (23) Weighing varying amounts of clay.
To serve as a source of material for tests, for drill, for introducing new steps, and for making problems to be used in practice the state has adopted two texts for each of these grades. They are "Child-Life Arithmetics" by Woody, Breed, and Overman and "Strayer-Upton Arithmetics."
These books have been selected with special consideration of the valuable results of experimentation in the arithmetic pro-
83

cesses. The demands of the child have been placed foremost in selection of material and a wide variety of projects has been ~ provided that introduce arithmetical processes in social situations -c--~amiliar to children. An attempt has been made to make the technical terms meaningful by elimination of unnecessary vocabulary. New points are introduced gradually and are explained as simply as they can be. The work in common fractions is restricted to fractions with small denominators since large fractions are rarely used in modern business; the decimal is given a great deal of attention since it is coming to be used more and more in everyday life; individual differences have been provided for by an organized program of diagnostic tests with remedial exercises, and the definite provision of enrichment for tha ablest pupils. They include very interesting topics as can be seen by the table of contents.
With these textbooks, it is easy to individualize the work. Using the individualized method of instruction each pupil can work at his own progress. The teacher should give definite assignments of enough work to keep each child busy for several days, and during this time she is free to help each pupil who needs help. It may be necessary for her to call the attention of the entire class to a new assignment or to explain something that is difficult for the whole class. If the teacher finds that this is time wasting or that several children have the same trouble she may divide the class into groups and work with each group as she does with individuals. "Child-Life Arithmetics" give definite directions at the top of the page addressed directly to the child. These directions enable the child to continue with his work without the teacher explaining just what is to be done in every problem.
Since arithmetic is a tool subject, mastery of knowledge and skills to the extent that they become automatic are necessary in order that real problems of life may be solved quickly and accurately. Hence there should be frequent need for tests, and remedial work should be given as needed by the class and individuals. Those pupils who do not need remedial work are quickly located and should be given self-help lessons. The tests at frequent intervals should be given since they provide a means for measuring attainment. They are devised to determine the needs of individual pupils and to separate what the pupil knows from what he does not know, thereby determining where drill is needed. The texts provide sufficient drill for pupils of normal ability and more difficult exercises for the brighter pupils.
A glance at the table of contents in "Child-Life Arithmetics" for grade six shows how well the authors have provided drill and material for enrichment of the program for brighter pupils. It
84

includes "Finding Our Weak Spots," "Curing Our Weak Spots," "Winner's Page," and "Keeping Up With What You Have Learned." Strayer and Upton include reviews in both examples --and in problem solving.
The mechanical processes of arithmetic are very necessary, but they are only a means to an end. The arithmetic we use in everyday life is of the problem type and all instruction should lead to the ability to solve adequately problems met in life situations. The development of the mechanics should be preceded and followed by practical applications in problem solving. If this is not done the children fail to associate the meaning of the operation with concrete problems. In teaching problem solving the teacher should help the child form good habits by following a particular procedure, as suggested in "Child-Life Arithmetics." She must know the factors that govern this ability and also the specific abilities that are essential. She should consider problems in the light of their reality, their interest to the pupil by involving his experience, and their language appeal. She should place great emphasis on silent reading and should encourage neat and accurate written work. She should challenge the pupil to do independent thinking by using topics in "Child-Life Arithmetics" (grade six) as, "How Near Can You Come?" "Anything New Here?" "Can You Do These?" and "How Good Is Your Memory?"
Other ways in which these textbooks may be used in problem solving are as a guide and self-help in solving the problems of the school activities that arise. Suppose for a Valentine party the sixth grade bought 48 paper hats for $3.84. The children would need to know how much each hat cost before they could tell how much to ask for them at the booth. They doubtless would know to divide, but probably the question would arise as to where the decimal should be placed. They could turn to the table of contents of the arithmetic textbook and find the page that gave the rule for the placing of the decimal in division. They soon would know that the hats cost $.08.
85

I
j
~... --,,-

A GUIDE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOQ.LS
WHICH MAINTAIN PROGRESSIVE PROGRAMS
In order to fulfill its purpose in the scheme of education the program of the school should grow out of the experiences which constitute normal living for children of the ages and maturity involved.
Every teacher must find out as much as possible about the group of children she is to teach, including the environment in which they are living and learning. Careful examination and study of the records kept by former teachers will reveal the experiences participated in by the group and will indicate interests and needs of individuals and of the group as a whole. With this as a background an investigation of available materials for meeting these needs and interests, in the light of conditions under which the children live, is necessary. The teacher should make herself thoroughly familiar with the content of textbooks owned by the state, as these form the nucleus of instructional materials common to all schools in Georgia.
In the elementary grades, the immediate concerns of education are the maintenance and fostering of health, physical, mental, and emotional; the development of a measure of the ability to live successfully and happily in groups other than the family; the further understanding of the environment; the development of economical and effective habits of work which include the fundamental skills needed in independent study.
The work of each class should be so organized that:
1. Much activity, both mental and physical, is provided under conditions that promote health and happiness.
2. There are group enterprises that foster or make necessary group co-operation and which help to give children a better understanding of living, working, and playing together. In these the children must not only carry out plans that others have made, but have the opportunity and the responsibility of setting up purposes for them selves, planning how to carry out these purposes, actually executing- the plans, and then evaluating the work done with reference to its purposes. They have the opportunity of sharing interests, discoveries, news, trips, stories, etc., and gain much practice in clear effective speech. Effort is made to develop a better understanding of the world through a study of the social and natural sciences.
3. There is opportunity to work or play alone and to satisfy individual interests of variou.s kinds.
8'1

4. There is time set apart for play when children play alone or in groups, according to their own desires, under the
-::"-,.-~
wise observation and assistance of the teacher (if needed), but not according to her dictation. This is a time for real recreation, not routine. Emphasis is placed upon wholesome (and for the older children, vigorous) out-of-door play. Good manners and the acquiring of social poise is encouraged through class parties, luncheons, indoor games, visits of parents and other guests to the school, and the practice of good sportsmanship on the playground as well as good citizenship throughout the day. 5. There is ample time for the development and perfecting of needed skills in reading, arithmetic, and all phases of the language arts including spelling and penmanship. Vocabularies characteristic of the various areas of learning are consciously acquired. Adequate individual remedial work in the tool subjects is provided. 6. There is opportunity for a variety of aesthetic experiences, both from the standpoint of doing creative work and of enjoying what others have created-literature, music, dance, painting, drawing, etc.
The entire program is built upon the belief that the greatest amount of growth is to be realized through pupil participation in a series of carefully evaluated and progressively more challenging individual and group activities. These activities are the result of pupil planning, executing and evaluating under the guidance of the teacher. The program thus conceived is so arranged that the time for each of the different kinds of activity may be shifted from day to day to suit the needs of the occasion.
The illustrations here given are suggestive of ways in which textbooks provided by the state may be used. No illustration is complete within itself but must be considered in relation to the child's whole program briefly described in the preceding paragraphs. The illustrations in regard to the use of books are taken at random from each of the elementary grades, and are of two general types:
1. Those that may be representative of the relation of the textbook to the development of certain experiences common to elementary school children, for example, maintaining health, receiving and transmitting ideas (reading, speaking, writing, and the use of number) . In this group are included some of those experiences which make for the development of economical and effective habits of work.
88

2. Those that may be representative of the relation of the textbook to the development of experiences based upon social living and leading to further understanding, utilization and control of the natural environment.

ILLUSTRATIONS, TYPE I

The Relation of the Textbook to the Development of Certain Experiences Common to Elementary School Children

Sharing Experiences
A part of each day is given to the sharing of experiences. Individual interests in books, magazines, current happenings, holiday seasons, insects, rocks, trips, games, etc., are discussed. Individual interests often become group interests. Questions are asked and the answers are sought. One source of information is the textbook which is a "ready reference". The children use the table of contents and the index to locate material. If the text material is inadequate, or if no material is found, the children seek the answers in other books. The technique used in locating material in the text proves valuable as the need to use the library grows. The following illustrations indicate some types of experiences which arise and the way in which the problems are handled.

Interest: Experiences in the Home

First Grade

In their early school days children can hardly wait each day to tell of their experi-

ences at home. Frequently parents make provision for a group to share experiences with their child. This type of thing occurred when one little girl had a birthday party and invited the first grade children. On the following day all were enthusiastic in recalling

Hardy, Surprise Stories
"The Surprise Party," p. 64-
Storm, Bob and Judy "A Party," p. 65-

the happy event. Two of the first grade read-

ing texts contained stories about parties, so

while the interest was high, they were read

by the class and comparisons made between these two parties as well as between them and the children's own experiences.

Interest: Special Days
Such "special days" as Halloween, Thanksgiving and Christmas call for an explanation of the significance of these occa-

Second Grade
Gates and Huber, Friendly Stories
"Christmas in the Barn," p. 121-

89

"Coasting with the Christmas Sled,"
P.135-<L; "Little Jack
Rabbit," p. 31"Brownie and the COllk," p. 81English and Alexander, Wheel8 and Wings
"A Pumpkin Jack O'Lantern," p.203-
"Peter's Thanksgiving," p. 204---.
"Fact and Story Readers"-Book IT
"Why Pigs Have
Curly Tails," p.141-

sions. The planning of programs and parties demands reading for enjoyment from fanciful material, from the experiences of other people and different forms of literature related to the subject.
In looking through their own textbooks to locate materials upon the subjects of their current interests, even primary grade children begin to learn how and where to find materials on a given subject and to form the habit of looking through the books at hand first and seeking additional material in the library afterwards.

Interest: Current Events-China and Japan Seventh Grade

Barker, Webb, and Dodd, The Growth of a Nation
Chap. XXV,
"Colonial Possessions and Foreign Policy," p. 623McConnell, The U. S. in the Modern World
Unit VIII, Topic IV, "The United States and World T'rade," p. 243Unit I, Topic II,
"Climate a Factor in the Wealth
of the United States," p. 7-14
Unit I. Topic III, "How the Size of the U. S. Has Helped Its Prog-
ress," P. 15Area of six leading nations of world, p. 19 Foreign trade---.. exports and imports, p. 245, 254, 259, and 271
Some of our important seaports, p.258 Most important ocean trade routes, p.265 Rice acreage, p.41 Rice fields in world, p. 48-

Newspaper accounts of the conditions in the Orient led to a study of China and Japan. In this study questions arose as to the foreign policy of the United States in the past and the meaning of the "open door policy" with China. The reference in the textbook proved helpful in understanding this policy. In connection with this same study the interdependence of nations and the position of the United States in world trade were discussed. This, of course, included a study of exports and imports of this country and the possible effects of the war in China and Japan upon the United States and other countries. The listM chapters of the state adopted geography were used.
Charts, maps, graphs, and pictures were studied carefully. These maps, charts, and graphs were most helpful in securing the desired information and in the development of certain skills in the social sciences.

90

Lumber on Pacific Coast sent to Japan, p. 108, 261
Raw silk, P. 203 Silk, p. 247, 260 Maps showing Japan as the third greatest buyer of our raw cotton, p. 255
Small consumption of meat in Japan,p.191

Interest: A Christmas Party

Seventh Grade

Before Christmas, when the children were planning some of the things that they wanted to do, they planned for and gave Christmas parties. They read and discussed certain chapters in their home economics book, which included information as to the duties of host and guests, the proper way to introduce people, and the kinds of refreshments to serve. Many of the recipes were made. As a result of this help, many children made plans for their holiday parties.

Calvert, The New First Course in Home Making
Unit VII, "Home Enjoyment and Recreation" Chap. I, "Happiness at Home," p.405Chap. 2. "Entertaining Our Friends," p. 412--
Chap. 4, "Celebrate Special Holidays," p.
432Unit III, Project IV, "The Informal
Tea," p. 176-

Maintaining Physical, Mental and Emotional Health

The problem of maintaining health is one that confronts children at all levels of development. Through the use of cumulative health records the school keeps account of the physical development and needs of the individual child. Yearly examinations, including eye and hearing tests, dental inspection, system.atic weighing, daily visitation of the health nurse, proper school lunch, play and rest periods are a part of the program. Every effort is made to prepare children for these examinations in order that they may willingly and intelligently enter into any plan for the solving of their health problems. The order in which the material is studied is determined by the needs of the group.

Interest: Health Examinations Fourth Grade

Through discussion of health problems Fowlkes, Jackson,

and the study of the text the children were

and Jackson, Healthy Growing

prepared for the examinations.

Chap. II, "Know-

91

ing Yourself,"

p. 10-

~~

Chap. I1I,"Some

Special Parts,"

p. 25-

Chap. IV, "Your

Teeth," p. 36-

"Strayer-Upton Arithmetics"-
Book Two "How Much Should You Weigh?" p. 6
"Are These Children Underweight?" p. 7

Plans were made for recording monthly weight records and for finding gains or losses in weight. Through using the index of the arithmetic book the children located the weight charts and the information necessary to solving the problems.

Interest: Living in the Community-Its Helpers

First Grade
Gehres, "Everyday Life"-Book One
"Going Home," p. 27 English and Alexander, Jo-Boy "The Man in Blue," p. 83Elson-Gray, "Basic Readers"-Primer "Patty and Her Penny," p. 50-

As a ball rolled from the playground to the street, a direct need was felt for observance of safety first. This gradually grew into better acquaintance with and observance of traffic rules, traffic lights, and the guidance of the policeman. This was dramatized in the room using traffic lights and a car made by the children, a policeman's whistle, and the doll carriage. Stories were read and new ideas received.
The fire alarm was heard. This brought up discussion of the fire department, its function, and the use of the fire engine. By arrangement a policeman later waited on a corner to escort the children across the street to the fire hall. Later the following story further strengthened and emphasized the learnings gained on this trip: English and Alexander, Good Friends, "The Fire Engine," p.70-73.

Second Grade
English and Alexander, Good Friends
"Cherry Farm," p.115-
English and Alexander, Wheels and Wings
"Tommy's Breakfast," p. 133-
Lummis and Schawe, The Safety

Interest: Foods
In the second grade's study of the community food was given considerable attention. One phase of the study was foods which are healthful for breakfast, dinner and supper. The explanation of the values, in the daily diet, of such different kinds of food as cereal, milk, eggs, fruit and the green things from the garden was found in the health books.

92

The kinds of fresh vegetables most needed, as --1Garrots, lettuce, turnips, etc., were em-
phasized. The reading of this material was done
under the direction of the teacher either at the time for "directed reading" or whenever its need was indicated in their study.

Hill of Health
"Charlie Carrot's Friends," p. 48Lummis and Schawe, Building My House of Health
"The Parade of the Vegetables," P. 37-

Interest: Living Together at School

Each school year brings problems of groups of children living and working together happily. The schoolroom, the building, the playground become in a measure the children's responsibility.
Knowledge and practice of pleasant, courteous manners in the classroom and the lunchroom are of major importance in building desirable standards of conduct. The textbook material helped the children and the teacher as together they faced, planned for, and attempted to solve problems of living and working together, choosing school lunches, caring for the room, and playing safely on the playground.

Fifth Grade
Brownell, Ireland and Giles, Helpful Living
Unit One, "Going to School," p. 263. Includes: "Looking at Your School" "Making the Room Attractive" "Making the Building Comfortable" "Working at School" "Playing at
School" "Eating at School" "Guarding Your Health" "Looking After
Your Safety"

Practicing with the Tools and Techniques of Communication, Speaking, Reading, Writing, Measurement and Number Relations

Reading
In the beginning of reading-during the transition from experience reading charts to primers-preprimers were found very effective. These little books have been planned especially to aid in the acquiring of skills in the fundamental habits of reading, i.e., proper movement of the eye across the page, accurate movement from one line to the next, increased sight vocabulary, getting ideas from the printed page, etc. Certain preprimers were found especially adaptable to the immediate interests of the children. These interests were in the home-father, mother, baby, sister, brother, pets, etc. Preprimers

English and Alexander, Spo,t
"Happy Hour
Reladers" Elson-Gray, Dick and Jane
"Elson Basic Readers" Suzallo and Others, First Steps
"Fact and Story Readers" Hardy, The Little Book-Preprimer
"Child's Own Way Series" Storm, Nip and Tuck "Guidance in

93

Reading Series" Gehres, "Everyday <Zf,ife"-Preprimer
"Everyday Life
Series"

were used because of tlleir content as well as because of special preparation for systematic enlargement of vocabulary.
Facility in reading for pleasure grew
until a need :was felt to read for information. This reading was carefully guided. Individual
differences of the children, i.e., their ability, their home environment and interests, their needs, etc., were kept in mind always. As
centers of interest were brought out b5r ex-
cursions in the community, by flowers, toys, etc., brought from children's homes, by discussions of experiences and observations, appropriate stories were found in some primers and first readers.

Interest: Experiences at Home

Elson-Gray, "Basic Readers"-
Primer "Alice and Her Mother," p. 60-
Storm, Bob and Judy "Play at Home,"
p.39EngIish and Alexander. Jo-boy
"Jo-boy and the Bird," p. 66"Four Rabbits,"
p.68Gehres, "Everyday
Life Series"-
Primer "Ruth and Tabby" "Joe and Wag" "Tiger and Wag" "The Scotties," p.1-35
Elson-Gray, "Basic Readers"-Primer
"Little Rabbit," p.71Hardy, Surprise Stories "Why White Hen Likes the Farm" "Thirteen Chicks" "Two Chicks Leave the Farm" "Down the Road," p.17-31 English and Alexander, Good Friends
"The Slow Turtle," p. 37-

As the children related games played with brothers and sisters, helping mother or taking care of the baby, certain stories were read to see how Alice, Bob, Judy and others had similar or slightly different experiences.
All children like to own pets to play with, feed, and care for. Children expressed themselves freely as they told about their favorite pets. These experiences were related closely to stories in books, and the pictures enjoyed.
With the coming of spring, little chickens were hatched at different children's homes. The question arose as to whether they could have little chickens at school. Some children found little chicken stories when looking at illustrations in books.
A turtle lived in a bowl in the schoolroom. It was fed, kept clean, and watched by the children. They were thrilled to find a story giving a similar experience.

94

Interest: Birds and Flowers

"2; Narcissus bulbs were planted and watched in the fall. By chance the children later found a story of how another class had planted bulbs. This gave them a feeling of pride because of their own experience. The songs and habits as well as the colors of spring birds were discussed. Excursions were made to watch and listen to the birds in a neighboring "bird haven." Stories were found in readers which told of children helping birds by leaving out-of-doors straw, strings, etc.; and by making and putting up bird houses. The idea carried over into the work period to the making of bird houses, which involved many problems such as size, roof, door, and color according to the preference of different kinds of birds. Other helpers in the community were mentioned at different times. Their contributions were made more meaningful by reading.

English and Alexander, Good Friends
"Flower Bulbs," p.40Hardy, Wag and
Puff
"The Little Apple Tree," p. 76Elson-Gray, "Basic Readers"-Primer "A Home in the Tree," p. 76English and Alexander, Good Friends
"The Bird House," p. 101Gehres, "Everyday
Life Series"Primer
"The New Shoes,"
p.94"Going to the Dentist," p. 110"Nancy's Haircut," p. 124-
Gehres. "Everyday Life Series"-Book One
"Jay, the Paper Boy," p. 33"Finding the Janitor," p. 79"A Busy Janitor,"
p.84"At the Grocery Store," p. 105-

Interest: Holidays
Naturally the celebration of each holiday was made more significant by the reading of stories relating to it. Often id~s were received which were carried over into the method of observing various festivities.

Hardy, Surprise Stories
"A Jack o'Lantern," p. 102"A Thanksgiving Joke," p. 110Elson-Gray, "Basic Readers"-Primer "How Patty Said Thank You," p. 95"Red Hen and the Valentine,"
p.106Elson-Gray, "Basic Readers-
Book One "The White Easter Rabbit,"
p.165"A Glad Thanks-

95

giving," p. 151-
"The Christmas Fairy," p. 155-c;--.,.-~ English and Alexander, Good Friends "Easter Bunny," p. 163Gates and Huber, Peter and Peggy
"The Store Window at Easter,"
p.76-

Interest: Old Classics

Elson-Gray,
"Basic Readers"Book One
"The Lambkin,"
p.119"John,y-Cake,"
p.127"Sweet Porridge," p. 134"Billy Goats Gruff," p. 140"The Little Red Hen," p. 145-

Children never tire of telling, reading and playing the old tales that have stood the test of time.

Since there are in one class children at different levels of reading ability, the reading materials must be adapted to the ability of the individual which necessitates the use of books of varying difficulty. This demand is met in a timely fashion by the state adopted textbooks. As these books may be used in any grade in the school, there is no reason why a given grade should not be reading in three different textbooks at the same time. One group which needs work in mastering the mechanics of reading may be in one corner reading orally from a simple reader while another group reads silently a reader of the grade level, and still another reads silently from a book above grade level. Great care must be taken that there are adequate checks on comprehension in all groups. As a group finishes one set of books it immediately begins reading another set which may be either of the same difficulty as the one just finished or more difficult, whichever is better in the judgment of the teacher; in this way each group of children is reading at its own progressive reading level. If a child forges ahead and the reading in his group ceases to be challenging and stimulating he is gradually absorbed into the group that is doing more difficult reading. The use of recommended reading tests aids in determining the abilities and skills of the pupils and in the selection of the reading books that meet the needs of the different groups of children.
Accurate records of the books read by individual children

96

must be kept so that each successive teacher may know what .... 9.Qoks have been read and thereby avoid repetition, and at the
same time make the reading program of each child progressive, varied, and adequate. The difficulty of the reading material should increase in direct ratio to the advance in reading ability. Care should be taken that there is sufficient repetition of the words in the books chosen to insure the building of a reading vocabulary. As this reading program develops, individual needs, individual interests, and group interest demand the use of the library. Skill in using books begun in the reading period with the textbook find large usage and real development as children read for pleasure and for information needed in the solution of problems.
Numbers
Daily living brings contact with and need for number. The school uses these experiences as a means of helping children to understand number relations. The following pages show the manner in which the arithmetic text is used in the development of some types of experiences. In addition to this the text provides carefully graded practice material which is used as a part of necessary drill.

Further understanding of numbers and their relationships, and developing skills are vital phases of third grade work. In community study, the milkman was one of the helpers whose work was very important in the living of the children. Some of them had an incomplete understanding of the measures he uses--pint, quart and gallon. They did not know how many pints make a quart, how many quarts make a gallon, etc. Some problems in an arithmetic text dealt with this.
Another problem of measurement came up when the group went to be weighed and measured.

Third Grade
"Strayer-Upton Aritmetics"-Book I
"Selling Milk and Cream," p. 109
"How Tall Are You?" p. 93 "Using the Foot Rule," p. 92-

In the study of the cold there developed a minor unit about weather. One of the children's experiences was the keeping of a temperature record. This necessitated the

Fourth Grade

97

Fourth Grade

reading of a thermometer. Many of the

"Strayer-Upton -,-2.: Arithmetics"-

children did not have this ability. They found

-Book Two

in the arithmetic a lesson on this subject.

"How to Read the Thermometer," p. 66

They read the instructions, learned the notation and drilled on the subject by working the

"Measuring Tem- problems set forth in the text. However,

perature," p. 57 where the text went on to deal with the work-

ing of problems, drill on addition, etc., the

children put their newly learned skill to

immediate use. They kept both temperature

and weather charts; this involved thermom-

eter reading.

Money and Money Substitutes

Seventh Grade

During "Thrift Week," beginning with

Calvert, The New First Course in Home Making
Unit I, Chap. II, "On Being Thrifty," p. 41-
Calvert, The New First Course in Home Making
Unit II, Chap III, "Y\ou and the Family Income," p.47Overman, Woody, and Breed, "Child Life Arithmetics" -Grade Seven, Chap. V, "Using Arithmetic in the Home," p. 107114. Includes: "Personal Cash Accounts" "Family Cash Accounts" "Personal and Family Cash Accounts" "Family Budget"

a discussion of Benjamin Franklin and his views about thrift, the way in which children could be more thrifty with their time and money was discussed. In order to see how one child had budgeted his time the class was asked to look at a chart on page 44 in their home economics books. Since further information about thrift was given, the children were asked to read Chapter II, "On Being Thrifty." They later made their own time charts, illustrating them with original drawings.
Continuing the discussion of thrift this time in connection with the use of money, the class read Chapter III, "You and the Family Income," pages 47 and 49, to find out what a budget was, how to make one, and how to keep a personal account. Some of the more mature children were interested in family income and the way money should be spent. They read and discussed the rest of the chapter. Their work was supplemented with material from their arithmetics ("Family Budget," pages 113-114) which supplied additional examples in percentage for them to work.

98

Questions as to the origin of money were rai:;;ed and Chapter I, "The Convenience of -Meney," pages 36-39, were read silently in class in order to find some of the answers.
The civics book, Chapter XII, pages 227232, "Buying and Selling"-"Weights and Measures and Money," was also used as a reference.
The reasons why it was unsafe and impractical to keep money at home and always pay with cash brought up the subject of banks and their services. In addition to securing firsthand information about the banks in the city, additional help was secured by reading "Credit and Banks," p. 233-237 in the civics books. In the "Child Life Arithmetics," grade seven, the pictures on pages 115 and 116 of deposit slips and checks helped them in filling out deposit slips and checks which a committee had obtained when it visited the bank. The same pages helped in understanding the meanings of the terms "balance," "stubs," and "endorse." Some of the questions on page 117, "Writing and Cashing Checks," were helpful. Borrowing money from a bank led to a study of loans and interests. Material and examples on pages 138-140 were helpful.
Questions about savings accounts arose and the advantages were discussed. In the arithmetics, "Opening a Savings Account," pages 149 and 150, provided information and additional problems in interest. The brighter group had to be given many additional problems.
Postal savings .accounts were taken up next and a child whose father works at the post office explained how it functioned. Page 151 provided additional information and problems.
The way in which business had necessitated the use of other ways of transferring money led to a study of express money orders, bank drafts, and postal money orders. The pictures on pages 122 and 123 were of help in

Calvert, The New First Course in HomeMaking
U~t II, Chap. I, "The Convenience
of Money," p. 36-
Sherwood, Civics and Citizenship
Chap. XII, "Buying and Selling" "Weights, Measures, and Money," p. 227Sherwood, Civics and Citizenship Chap. XII, "Buying and Selling" -"Credit and Banks," p. 233Overman, Woody and Breed, "Child Life Arithmetics" -Grade Seven Chap. V, "Using Arithmetic in the Home"-"Doing Business with a Bank," p. 115Chap. V, "Using Arithmetic in the Home"-"Finding the Interest for One Year," p. 138"Finding Interest for Years and Months," p. 139"Finding the Interest When the Time Is in Days," p. 140Overman, Woody, and Breed, "Child Life Arithmetics" -Grade Seven Chap. V. "Using Arithmetic in the Home" "Opening a Savings Account," p.149 "Postal Savings Account," p. 151
Overman, Woody and Breed, "Child Life Arithmetics"
-Grade Seven "Paying Bills at a Distance"

99

"Postal Money

understanding the first two, and the informa-

-~~

Orders" "Express Money Orders" and

tion on page 121 helped the children in filling out the blanks which they secured from the

"Bank Drafts," p.121-

post office.

.

Language

The language and spelling books furnish excellent practice material for establishing correct usage in both oral and written expression. The language book is a constant source of reference in the children's effort to express themselves clearly. The illustrations given below will indicate the way in which the book is used to build standards and to help solve the problems that the children face when they write. Vocabulary building is one of the major problems of the elementary school. The spelling book furnishes a well organized, graded list chosen from the words needed by all children. Its use makes for economy of time in acquiring systematic practice. This list is supplemented by special vocabularies from the various areas of learning, by standard lists, and by the needs of the individual children.

Sixth Grade
Paul, Sullivan and Lance, "New Language Goals" -Sixth Grade
Friendly Letters, p. 20, 189 "Business Letters," p. HS"Paragraph p. 82, 24, 48, 34, 36, 61, 22. 28, 29 Debate p. 58-60, 93, 145-147

As a part of the work in social studies the children invited guests to come to visit the room and to speak on various topics. There was then a definite need for writing, "thank you" notes to these people.
During the work on an imaginary tour through Europe the children wrote to the travel agencies for information and material. This demanded a knowledge of how to write business letters. Keeping diaries during this same work called for careful study of the paragraph. As a culminating activity in this study the children decided to hold a debate. The language book told them how to conduct it.

Seventh Grade

At the opening of school when the children were writing of the experiences which they had had during the summer, very few of them knew how to write their titles correctly. When they were told to capitalize all the words in the title except prepositions, articles, and conjunctions, it was found that they did not know these parts of speech and their uses in sentences. In studying prepositions and conjunctions questions came up about phrases

tOO

and clauses, and since the children needed help in improving sen.. _J~nee structure it seemed well to take them up then. This con-
sequently led into a study of simple, compound,and complex sentences. By this time the class was ready for concentrated work on paragraph development.

In writing descriptions of people and places a need for further study of adjectives and adverbs was evident.

Sullivan, Lance and Paul, "New Language Goals" -Seventh Grade
"Conjunctions," p. 69 "Prepositions," p.75 "Clauses," p. 100 "Phrases," p. 107 "Sentence According to Form," p. 94 "The Paragraphs," P. 173 " Adjectives," p.31 "Adverbs," p. 63 "Adjectives and Adverbs," p. 158-

In the social studies and other work of the day there are many occasions on which children must write, sometimes copying, sometimes creating. In either case there are some standards which must sooner or later be met in social usage. The language book helps to build these standards. In 'Written work the children have learned to use contractions, to know sentences, and to use capital letters correctly.

Fourth Grade
Paul, Sullivan, and Lance, "New Language Goals" -Fourth Grade
"Is and Are, Isn't and Aren't," p. 12"Talking with Your Friends," p. 5 "Learning to Write Names," p. 19-

ILLUSTRATIONS, TYPE II
Relation of the Textbook to the Development of Experiences Based upon Social Living and Leading to Further Understanding,
Utilization and Control of the Natural Environment
As children work in groups, interest, purposes and plans develop. The successful accomplishment of these demands participation in all types of activities. In the effort to solve problems children should be led to turn to books. The uniform text which contains carefully selected material is beneficial in that it presents a common meeting ground for the examination of a given problem. This does not mean that the facts in the text are the solution to the problem, for all available material must be used; nor does

101

it mean that all of anyone text will be useful at any given time. "2: It does mean, however, that in attempting to solve a problem
children shoufd use as needed all pertinent material in all of their texts, regardless of the arrangement in the book.
The following pages will"show some ways in which children have gone to the texts:
1. For directions for making and doing things. 2. For enjoyment of experiences.
3: For information regarding habits of animals, growth of
plants, and other natural phenomena. 4. To satisfy curiosity as to conditions in other localities,
as to location of places, etc. 5. To secure information as to the ways earlier people
lived, traveled, and communicated with each other. 6. To understand contributions of great men and of gen-
eral periods of history to living in the present day. 7. To understand the way the life of man is influenced by
geographic and climatic conditions. 8. To aid in the interpretation of current happenings. 9. To gain knowledge needed in solving various types of
problems. 10. For pure enjoyment.

First Grade
English and Alexander, Jo-boy
"The Train Ride," p.44"The Airplane Ride," p. 50"Patty and Her Dolls," p. 52Storm, Bob and Judy "The Little Train," P. 30-

Interest: Toys
Occasionally toys were brought from home to share with the other children. Sometimes toys were made in varying ways according to ability of the children, availability of materials, and originality of ideas. Some stories were read for information on the construction. The illustrations were often helpful.

Interest: Experience at School

Storm, Bob and Judy
p"J.u8d5y -at School," "The School Radio," p. 89"In the Studio," p.92"The Radio Party," p. 103Storm, Bob and Judy "Making Things at School," p.135-

Interest in studios, broadcasting, and radio grew after one child visited a real studio and told the group about it.
After setting up a crude broadcasting station and making a radio, impromptu programs were given for the pleasure of the class.

102

It was discovered that Bob and Judy had en~ .. -iQYed the same experience.
Ideas for new and different things to be made at school were found in reading.

Gehres, "Everyday
Life"-Book One "Experiences at
School," p. 1-26
and 76-82

Interest: The Out-of-Doors

Second Grade

Out-of-doors science interests in neighborhood and community require daily research activities in reading. The preparation which some insects make for winter (how food is stored and special winter homes) cannot always be observed. Reading descriptions of bird characteristics helps to identify the birds in a study of permanent residents in the community.

English and Alex-
ander, Wheels and Wings
"An Ant Hill," p.92"A Hive of Bees," p.95Suzzalo, Freeland, McLaughlin and Skinner, "Fact and Story Readers" -Book II "The Woodpecker," p. 31"Baby Robin's First Bath," p.58-

Interest: Indian Liife
In approaching this study the children learned the way the Indians of long ago lived in this country.
The material found in this story led to a desire to have an Indian village. Information about how to do this was needed. The children went to the book and read.
When the interest in designs came up, some groups decided to read during a directed period, to find how the Indians used them. Vocabulary increase was again significant.

Third Grade
Gates and Huber, Friendly Stories
"Long Ago," p. 145 "A Wigwam," p. 172 How to get material How to cut the muslin How to paint a design "An Indian Water Jar," p. 149

Interest: Current Happenings

Fifth Grade

1. An Interesting Booklet
The 1937 summer edition of the official publication of the commonwealth of Kentucky, In Kentucky, was brought to school by a member of the fifth grade. The booklet contained interesting pictures of Kentucky's parks, places of interest, industries, and

McConnell, Living in the Americas
Occupations: Sheep raising, p.161 Tobacco raising,
p. 162 Winter wheat growing, p. 173 Mining, p. 177-

103

Lumbering,

p; 179

-~~

Shipping coal,

p. 188

Cincinnati market

for the products of

Kentucky,

p.193

"Louisville,

Kentucky's

Largest City,"

p.194-

Mammoth Cave,

p. 198

Suzallo, Freeman, McLaughlin and Skinner, "Fact and Story Readers" -Book Five
Longfellow-
"The Children's Poet," p. 233 "Washington and His Brave Army," p.345-
"Washington's Helper from
Abroad," p. 355Avery, "Prose and PoetrY"-Fourth Year
"The Story of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Life," p. 227Freeman and
Johnson, "ChildStory Readers"-
Fifth Reader
"Edison. One of Mankind's Great Benefactors," p.l12-

Barker, Dodd,

Webb, The Story of

Our Nation

Franklin, p. 110-

113, 139, 154-5,

170-173

.

Robert E. Lee,

p.334-349

McConnell, Living

in the Americas,

p. 277, 281-282,

286

sports. Portions of the booklet were read aloud, and in order to answer certain questions the class read in the geography text, using the index to locate material.
2. Great Americans The special occasions such as Halloween, Armistice Day, Memorial Day, etc., and birthdays of famous men that occurred throughout the year, were observed. In preparation of programs the texts were constantly used. As many great men were born in January and February, the work for January centered around "Great Men." Biographies were read and written. Many books were consulted to find out about the lives and works of these men. Programs and plays were given, stories were told, poems read and booklets made. In all these activities the texts were constantly used.
3. Virgin Islands A member of the group brought to class a stamp from the Virgin Islands. By consulting their text the class located these islands, found to whom they belong, the way in which they were acquired and the reasons for their importance.

The Influence of the Cold on Man's Living

Fourth Grade
McConnell, Living in Different Lands

In this study the fourth grade learned the adjustments necessary in its own com-

104

munity and country, those required by Arctic

.. expeditions, by Eskimos, and by Scandinavian

clJuntries.

.

The whole subject could be found treated in the geography text in twenty-six pages. Obviously this would give only one viewpoint if the content material was used as definite assignments to be learned.
Actually the material was used in several ways with a particular end in view. For instance, the part of the text dealing with Lapland was treated as a basic source of information because the content and illustrations were better than could be found in other texts and supplementary sources at the children's command.
At the same time another textbook helped to a better understanding of the people of Lapland and the nature of the country. While the geography text had its primary value in the information offered, the reading text was used for enjoyment and for development of definite skills in reading. The story was read by a group of about ten readers of average reading ability. The other members of the class read in library books suited to their ability.
On the other hand, since Norway had been approached through a study of Norse legends, viking tales, and narratives of the life of ancient Norway, the children had gone far in their understanding of its people before most of the textbook material on the subject was referred to. However, the "Prose and Poetry" reader supplied two of the tales which were used in this approach.
After certain activities had been engaged in with regard to the study of the vikings, such as painting of viking ships and drawing of feast halls, two textbooks were used in order that a comparison might be made between ancient and modern Norway. These

Unit VIII, "Cold Northern Lands: Norway, Lapland, and Baffin Island," p. 140Unit XI, "A Cold Southern Land: Antarctica," P. 191-
McConnell, Living in Different Lands
"The Land of the Midnight Sun," p. 145 "A Visit to Lapland," p. 148
O'Donnell and Carey, If I Were Going
"It Happened in Lapland," p. 63-
Avery, "Prose and Poetry"-Fourlh Year
"Balder the Beautiful," p. 353 "How Thor Found His Hammer," p. 362
McConnel, Living in Different Lands
"In the Land of the Reindeer," p.140"Making a Map Tell a Story," p.141-

105

"Visiting a Seaport and a Farm," p.142"2.; O'Donnell and Carey, If I Were Going "It Happened in Norway," Includes: "The Land of Mountains" "The Coming of Spring" "The Battle of the Cows" "The Drive to the Mountain Pasture" "Carl the Herdboy" "Market Day," p.21-55
McConnell, Living in Different Lands
Fig. 225, "The Continent of Antarctica," p. 213 Fig. 195, "A Map of Australia and Antarctica," p.l77 Antarctica: "Where Nobody Lives," p. 191 "Visiting the Coldest Continent," p. 193 "Looking Back at the Far South," p.196 Wright, Tirey and Crites, Pioneers "Little America," p.10"A 'Husky' in Little America," p.20"A Little Girl Meets a Great Man," p. 31

were used to clarify, through description and pictures, ideas and impressions already gained. They were used in the improvement of reading skills, to find the answer to a particular question, to gain the principal thought in a paragraph, to check comprehension of silent reading. The study of the two polar caps was approached through current news articles and other such material as maps, pictures and older news articles of arctic and antarctic expeditions. The current news on the subject was the dramatic story of the Russian scientific expedition adrift on an ice floe in the Arctic Ocean. The older articles dealt with Byrd's expedition to Little America. The textbook treatment was much the same as used in the study of Norway.
As part of the study a group of children made a map of Antarctica using a homemade lantern slide projection. In working out this slide the text, as a map reference, was used along with other maps.
As the work developed the content of the geography text and of a new reader were supplementary sources of information with regard to Antarctica. There was little in either of these two texts which was not already known by the children. However, the geography gave, through its illustrations, another viewpoint and clarification of impressions. The reader gave the human side of the story of Little America and of Admiral Byrd.

Fowlkes, Jackson and Jackson, Healthy Growing
"Choosing Your Clothes," p. 139Include: "Keeping Warm" "Dressing from Here to the South"

The children knew how clothing could
be changed in order to help man adjust to the
cold. In the health text they found a description of how Admiral Byrd adjusted his clothing to the varying conditions of climate which he found in traveling from New York to Little America.

106

From the study of the north polar expeditions the class went into a study of the Eskimo and the way he lives. This was handled by narration, reading and discussion in which the textbook was used to the same extent as other sources of material and learning. In order to depict Eskimo life by means of a village and a mural, material from geographies and readers was used. The effect of the white man's coming on the health of the Eskimo was set forth in the health book.
In dealing with the cold weather and man's contact with it in the winter, the class read in the "Prose and Poetry" reader several poems. These were read for appreciation and enjoyment.

Pole" "Different Clothes for Different Weather" "Dr-essing for
Sports," etc.

McQ.onnell, Living

in Different Lands

"A Visit to the

Eskimos,"

p. 153

Fowlkes, Jackson

and Jackson,

Healthy Growing

"Goof! Citizens"

p. 63-68

'

Includes:

"An Eskimo

Story," p. 63

"Thinking of One

Another," p. 69-

"Quarantine,"

p.70-

Avery, "Prose and Poetry"-Fourth Ye,ar
"Winter"-Alfred Tennyson, p.443"Jack Frost" -Celia Tha,.xer, p. 494"Winter Time"R. L. Stevenson, p.146-

The United States; The Louisiana Purchase

Objectives:

Fifth Grade

To develop a knowledge of and an interest in the growth of the United States by:
A. Gaining a knowledge of the lives of the men who participated actively in governmental affairs during this period of our history.
B. Reading in texts and supplementary books stories of the Louisiana Purchase.
C. Gaining an appreciation of the value of the Louisiana Purchase to the United States by studying the geographic features and natural resources of the region and the way in which these affected the occupations of the people.

Activities
1. In an effort to answer questions raised by the children maps and books were

107

Barker, Dodd and Webb, The Story of Our Nation <t.; "President
Jefferson Buys Louisiana," p.209-
Barker, Dodd and Webb. The Story of Our Nation
President J efferson, p. 154-156, 172, 190; buys Louisiana, 209211; explores Far West, 211, 212; "The War of 1812," 223-226; and expansion, 245.
Barker, Dodd, Webb The Story of Our Nation
"France in the Race for America," p. 78-
"Strayer-Upton Arithmetics"-Book Three
"Area of a Rectangle, p. 142Problem solving, p.32-

consulted to find out why the United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France when, at the close of the F~ench and Indian War, France had given Spain all the land west of the Mississippi River. Many books were consulted by the individual children. Then the class as a group read the text, The Story of Our Nation, in order to find the answers to specific questions. This material formed the common core of information.
2. Since the Louisiana Territory was purchased from Napoleon, the Emperor of France, the question arose as to how Napoleon acquired this land from Spain, so the teacher told some of the most interesting incidents in the life of Napoleon. Many of the class had seen the moving picture, "Conquest," which added to the interest.
3. The question came up as to whether the United States can at any time buy land and if so who has the authority to make the purchase. There followed much discussion, the consulting of the Constitution and reading about:
A. Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States at the time of the Louisiana Purchase.
B. The reasons that the United States representatives felt the Louisiana Purchase should be made though they did not have the consent of Congress.
4. The nationality of the people and their attitude toward the constantly changing ownership of the land was determined by a close examination of pictures, lantern slides and by reviewing the story of "France in the Race for America." This included the settling of New Orleans.
5. The United States had bought a large tract of land for $15,000,000. To find out how many acres had been bought and how much had actually been paid for it required a knowledge of ways of measuring land and of finding areas. The table of square measure

108

was constantly referred to and the problems were solved according to the fundamental ~-steps given in the text. The necessity for reading large numbers was constantly encountered.
6. The stories of exploration of the Louisiana Territory by Lewis and Clark were read in many different books; the hardships and adventures encountered.Lewis and Clark's method of acquiring food, their hairbreadth escapes from Indians and wild animals, and the life and customs of the Indians made interesting reading. The class as a group read from the language text a story of the Mandan Indians, "After the Battle." Then, using the suggestions that were made, the class told the stories they had read from the books on the reading table, making an effort to improve individual difficulties. A brief resume of the expedition of Lewis and Clark was found in the text. The teacher read to the class excerpts from:
A. Up the Missouri with Lewis and Clark, Paul Allen. The Superior Printing Company.
B. Our Country, Past and Present, Nida and Webb. Scott, Foresman and Company.
7. The natural resources and geography of the region included in the Louisiana Purchase and the ways which these influenced the occupations of the people were determined after consulting many geography books, maps, circulars from travel agencies and story books.
Again the information "common" to the group was found in the text. The sources of information were of varying degrees of difficulty according to the abilities of the individual children using them.
8. In determining the important cities of this region and the reasons they have become so, New Orleans was studied as a type city. A member of the "A Capella Choir,"

"The Farms of the United States," p. 36 Periods of numbers, P. 36 Table of Square Measure, p. 184 Paul, Sullivan and Lance, "New Language Goals" -Fifth Grade "Retelling a Story," p. 146-Lewis and Rowland "The New Silent Readers"-Book V Whys and Wherefores "David's Glorious Week," p. 361(A trip through Yellowstone National Park)
McConnell, Living in the Americas, p. 108-Lewis and Rowland Whys and Wherefores
"The Cliff Dwellers," p. 168(A letter describing the cliff dwellers who may be the great-great grandparents of the Pueblos) English and Alexander, Wide Windows "Cowboy Tommy," p.8

109

McConnell, Living in the Americas -~ "New Orleans,
the Crescent City," p. 115--

Paul, Sullivan and

Lance, "New Lan-

guage Goals"

-Fifth Grade

"Correct Usage"

(emphasis on

tense), p. 9, 134,

187, 198

"Was-were,"

p. 168-170, 199-

200

"Broke-broken,

did-done, went-

gone," p. 200-242.

"Ate-eaten, drew-

drawn, knew-

known," p. 162,

163, 187, 204

"See saw seen"

p.36:56

,

"Don't, doesn't,"

p. 198,199

"Those, them,"

p. 152

Exercises on p. 22,

42, 51, 69, 97, 119,

134, 135, 196

which had just returned from New Orleans, brought interesting illustrative materials, collected on the trip, and discussed them with the children.
Reference: Great Cities of the United States, Southworth and Kramer. Iroquois Publishing Company.
9. In the course of the development of the work the class became conscious of certain deficiencies in the skill subjects. Weaknesses in spelling, language and penmanship were eliminated by the use of practice work appearing in the language text. In addition to the practice work provided by the text, the children learned to use correctly the vocabulary pertinent to this problem.
10. As the work progressed various checks and tests were used as a part of the plan of evaluation. Some of these were in the textbooks. The shortages were built in for each individual by a use of the core material which appeared in the text.

An Imaginary Tour Through Central Europe

Sixth Grade
Paul, Sullivan and Lance, New Language Goals
-Sixth Grade "Business Letters," p. 116-118
"Strayer-Upton Arithmetics" -Book Four
"Fractions," p. 19 and 34 "Decimals," p. 35, 80, 81, 82

The class decided to write letters to the travel agents of the railroads and "bus" stations in Macon, Augusta and Atlanta in order to find the best schedule from Milledgeville to New York. To do this, the children had to learn the parts of a business letter, the form of writing and requirements. They found this out by a study of parts of the English book.
The letters of reply from the above agents contained the schedules or timetables. In order to decide upon the best route to take, ability to read decimals and fractions and means of finding distances from one town to another were needed.

no

During the discussion of the expenses of the trip the question came up as to the best way to carry money. The class learned how to make out travelers' and personal checks, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each. One of the pupils asked if banks didn't sometimes lend money to people. They found the procedures in borrowing money from banks, the rate of interest, and worked problems calculating the various amounts that several of the pupils would like to borrow for the tour.
In the March issue of Story Parade a notice was carried that Peter Penguin would send names and addresses of children in foreign lands who wished to correspond with children in the U. S. A. Several members of the class expressed a desire to start such a correspondence. They reviewed the parts of a friendly letter and the form of writing it.
The pupils asked such questions as "What kind of a climate do they have in the countries we are visiting?" "Do they have the same industries and raise the same crops that we do?" Etc. In order to find the answer to these questions they went to the geography book.
In order to get a historical background and better to understand the countries visited, they used the history books. They traced the progress of Europe from the medieval period up to the present time.
The class suggested that it would be fun to keep a diary and record the experiences. In order to write them, they learned how to write a paragraph; when to begin a new one, the main thought, and the topic sentence.
The pupils expressed a desire to read some of the myths and stories of the countries to be visited. Two selections were found in the reading text - "When Simba Came to Europe" and "Freight for Europe." These were read orally in class and discussed.

"Strayer-Upton Arithmetics" -Book Four
"Studying a Check," p. 89
"strayer-Upton
Arithmetics" -Book Four
"Borrowing Mon~y," p. 126 "Lost Interest as an Expense," p. 127 "Finding Interest," p. 128
Paul, Sullivan and Lance, "New Language Goals" -Sixth Grade
Letter writing, P. 20, 189
McConnell, Living Across the Seas,
p. 81-86; 101-104 248-264; 184-189 182-184; 138-156 189-194; 105-111
Beard and Bagley, Elementary World History
"The Dawn of the Modern Age"; "The Modern Age of Democracy and Machine Industry," p. 171-427
"New Language Goals"-Sixth Grade
Helps for keeping a diary, p. 82, 24, 48, 34, 36. 61, 22, 49
Freeman and Johnson, "ChildStory Readers" -Sixth Reader
"When Simba Came to Europe," p.86 "Freight for Europe," p. 365

111

"New Language Goals"-Sixth Grade
c" .. Debate, p. 58, 59,
- 60, 93, 145, 146,
147

As a summary of the study of some of the countries thlil class decided to have a debateResolved, That I prefer to live in Germany rather than in Russia. As a part of the preparation for this, they learned the way to organize and work out a debate.

Seventh Grade

The Growth of a Nation

On January the third, during the "contribution period" the fact that Congress would meet and that President Roosevelt

would speak at one o'clock was brought out. Some of the things which Congress would try to pass this session, anti-lynching bill, housing bill, minimum wage and hour bill, and others were talked about. Questions as to what Congress did and who gave it the power brought up the subject of the Constitution. The chil-

dren looked at the copies of the Constitution in their histories

and noted the divisions. With the teacher they read the preamble

and talked about its meaning. The teacher read to the class Dream I in the Road to Liberty which helped them understand better

the significance of the people.

In discussing reasons for the writing of

Barker, Webb and Dodd. The Growth of a Nation
"Concord Hymn," p.140
Unit III, Looking Forward, p. 141 Chap. VI, "Causes of the American Revolution," p.143-165 Chap. VII, "The War for Independence," p. 166-201

a Constitution the class decided that it would be best to go back and find something about the colonies before the Revolutionary War. In a former class the children had studied very thoroughly the period of exploration and colonization of America so it was not deemed necessary to do more than recall certain events. Relationships between the colonists and England were discussed together with general living conditions at that time. Along with a study of the men who played an important part in the making of our country, special committees gave reports on the lives

of such men as Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin

Franklin, John Hanco*ck, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, John Paul Jones, George Washington, Patrick Henry and others.

Attention was called to the similarity of certain characteristics of present day leaders and those whose names live as leaders in the early days of the nation. The fact that Eng-

lishmen at that time believed that there

112

should be "no taxation without representatiop" led to further questions about present -1"Qpresentation in state and national government and to interest in different kinds of taxes existing in states today. A ballad of the Boston Tea Party in the literature books was read. The humor in it, along with the characteristics of a ballad, were pointed out. Following the events chronologically the children felt that the rebellion of the colonists was justified and that in truth the first shot fired was heard around the world and was the beginning of a democratic form of government. Patrick Henry's speech with other stories and poems were read and studied, as they fitted in with history. The Declaration of Independence was read and the liberties which we today enjoy were emphasized. The

Avery, Van Arsdale and Wilber, "Prose and Poetry
-Seventh Year "A Ballad of the Boston Tea Party," p. 300-
"vVar Inevitable" Patrick Henry,
p.478"Grandmother's Story of Bunker Hill" (library research) ,
p. 306"The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga,"
selected, p. 508"England and America in 1782" -Alfred Tennyson, p. 440-
"The Name of Old Glory"-J. W. Riley, p. 495-

general conditions of the British and Colonial

armies, the leaders, and the principal battles

were studied. Maps on page 206 showing the United States after the Declaration of Independence, on page 263 showing the United States after the Treaty of 1783, and on page 423 showing the United States as it is today, were studied, compared, and discussed.
In order to find answers to questions about the people at the close of the Revolu-

Growth of a. Nation -Chap. VIII, "The New Nation: The United States of America," p. 202-229 Chap. IX, "The Establishment of the Constitution," p.230-263

tion histories were used as references. To Sherwood, Civics

secure still further information about the and Citizenship

Articles of Confederation and why they failed

Chap. XVIII, "The National

their histories were again referred to. The I Government,"

outline on page 261 gave the children the idea of writing a play on "The Constitutional

p.280-326 Chap. XVII, "Some American

Convention."

Ideals,"

Material in the civics books was used as p.275-279

it came up in connection with history. In a simple manner the duties of the three departments of government and the privileges enjoyed in our country as a result of our forefathers' struggles and wisdom were explained. Civics books gave a good summarization. Appropriate selections' from the

Avery, Van Arsdale and Wilber, "Prose and Poetry" -Seventh Year
"America the Beautiful"-K. L. Bates, p. 463"American's Creed"-W. T. Page, p. 479-

literature books were read.

"The Footpath to Peace"-H. Van Dyke, p. 483

113

A GUIDE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

<t.;

MAINTAINING TRADITIONAL BROGRAMS

Introduction
The curriculum revision committees in Georgia have been working for several years to develop and recommend to the schools a curriculum which would contribute significantly toward a richer life for Georgia's people. A careful analysis of Georgia's needs has indicated that education should help the people to deal more effectively with the persistent problems of living today in Georgia.
Definite attempts have now been made by many Georgia teachers to integrate the curriculum with real life experiences. Subject matter has been made to function in actual experience so that direct connection with persistent problems has been very evident. A serious handicap of the wide-awake teacher has been the lack of reading materials in the improved processes of teaching. Now, however, the state's recent adoption of an excellent multiple list of texts and of library books has eliminated the lackof-material handicap to a large extent.
The less progressive teacher has excused her inefficiency in the past by saying that she had insufficient material to use progressive methods. Now that the material has been provided she says, "We have too many books. The children can not possibly cover so many different books."
Of course our well-meaning but uninformed teacher has missed the point. Each book is not to be covered as if each comprised a new subject. Page to page assignments in one text at a time have little value. All teachers who want to be successful must learn to use books as tools in helping children solve problems. Books have little value as ends in themselves. To guide Georgia teachers in an effective use of the newly adopted texts and library books, is the aim of this bulletin.
The committee thought that one of the best ways of presenting the helps would be in the form of units worked out based upon the materials found in the texts of the state adopted list.
Five units have been written.* The one on the primary level was
the outgrowth of the activities of a group of student teachers under the supervision of the teacher of materials and methods for elementary schools. Two were the experiences of children and teacher in the Campus Laboratory School of South Georgia
*In many respects these units illustrate transitional or progressive school programs instead of typically traditional programs.-The editors.
115

Teachers College. One was developed in the classroom in the ... Rural Laboratory School of South Georgia Teachers College by a "2.; student teacher under direction of a supervising principal, and
one was developed by a group of students in a class in high school methods. This was supervised by the instructor of this course.
LEARNING ABOUT FRACTIONS
In the development of this unit every effort was made to make the procedures as clear and simple as possible and yet make all activities as meaningful as possible. There was a feeling on the part of the teacher that the subject of fractions has been taught so often in a very abstract way. With this in mind this unit was developed through the use of concrete materials.
No effort has been made to follow the pages in the state adopted book. Some fundamental principles of fractions were set down to be learned. The text was used where materials were found to present concrete examples or illustrations. Definitions and terms were best understood by referring to the text for clearcut statements.
With many of the exercises student teachers were used as children for the purpose of getting definite reactions from several individuals to procedures in order to test the validity of much of the material.
Objectives
1. To learn what a fraction is. 2. To learn the terms of a fraction and the meaning of each. 3. To learn the kinds of fractions. 4. To change fractions to higher and lower terms. 5. To add like fractions. 6. To reduce improper fractions to whole or mixed numbers. 7. To add unlike fractions. 8. To subtract like fractions. 9. To subtract unlike fractions.
Materials
1. Rulers. 2. Butcher's paper or newsprint. 3. Scissors. 4. Crayons. 5. Tag board, butcher's paper, or newsprint for charts. 6. Duplicator. 7. Face of a clock. 8. Pint, quart, gallon, peck, and half bushel measure (dry). 9. Half pint, pint, quart, gallon measure (liquid).
116

Objective 1

toc'; Let the teacher cut an apple into two equal parts. Open books

page 113. Read problems 1, 2, 3.

..

The teacher has made circles of the same size which have lines drawn to divide them into halves, thirds, fourths, and sixths. Distribute scissors and circles. Have children take the circles which have one line through the center and cut along the line. Ask into how many parts the circle has been divided. Have pupils write 1/2 on each part. Follow the same procedure with circles of thirds, fourths, and sixths. Ask each time how many parts are in each whole.

Give children strips of paper 12" by 1" that have not been divided into parts. Distribute foot rulers. Ask pupils to divide one strip into two equal parts. Write the name on each part. Divide the next strip into four equal parts. Write the name on each part and tell how many parts are in each whole. Proceed in the same manner with the other strips.

Objective 2
Have pupils take out circle cut into fifths. Tell them to take out three fifths. Teacher writes 3/5 on the board. Ask pupils which number tells how many parts the circle was divided into, which tells how many of those parts you were talking about. Tell the children that the parts of a fraction have names: the bottom part is the family name, given to all the parts of the object or thing divided. The name of this part is denominator. The other part tells how many of the parts you are talking about. It is called the numerator.
Write these words on the board. Follow above procedure with circles divided into fourths, thirds, etc. Then write several fractions as 3/4, 2/3, 6/7, 5/6 on the board. Call on a pupil to read the number that tells into how many parts the whole object was divided. Ask what this part of the fraction is called. Then call on a pupil to read the number that tells how many of the parts we are talking about.. Ask what this part of the fraction is called. Follow the same procedure for the other fractions. Then give exercises similar to the following:
Recognizing the Numerator and Denominator.
Section 1. Below you will find a list of fractions. Take each fraction and place the numerator under the place marked N and place the denominators under the place marked D. The N stands for numerator and the D stands for denominator.

117

1. 2/3 6. 3/5 11. 8/9 16. 2/5 N D

2. 3/4 7. 4/5 12. 9/10 17. 5/6

-~~

3. 1/5 8. 6/7 13. 2/7 18. 3/7

4. 1/4 9. 10/12 14. 4/9 19. 5/12

5. 2/5 10. 13/15 15. 1/6 20. 3/10

Section II. Below you will find a list of fractions. Write by the side of each numerator N and by the side of each denominator D.

1. 1/3 2. 2/5 3. 1/6 4. 7/8 5. 9/10

6. 3/4 11. 11/12 16. 6/7 7. 2/3 12. 8/9 17. 6/12 8. 3/5 13. 4/5 18. 2/5 9. 10/12 14. 3/8 19. 7/10 10. 17/18 15. 5/6 20. 3/7

A chart such as the following will prove helpful during the introduction of fractions. Add the various parts of the chart as these are introduced to the class. Such a chart to be justified must be used. A picture may hang on the wall for a year and never be really seen by the pupils. Refer to the chart by questions daily, and it will become a valuable teaching aid.

Arithmetic Chart

Whole Numbers Fractions
Parts of Fractions Numerator

2, 9,8,12 2/3,1/4,5/6,4/9
4,2,3

Denominator
Proper Fractions Improper Fractions Mixed Numbers

5,3
3/4,1/2,4/5,2/7 4/3,5/4,7/2,6/3 21/3,53/4,32/5

Objectives 3 and 6
Teacher gives to each pupil two circles that have been divided
+ into halves, two that have been divided into thirds, two into
fourths, two into fifths, etc. Write on the board 1/3 1/3 and ask the pupils to add this, using the parts of their circles. Write
+ the sum, 2/3, on the board. Ask the pupils which is larger the
numerator or the denominator. Then have them add 2/3 2/3. Write the sum, 4/3, on the board and ask which is larger the numerator or the denominator. Then tell the children to take the four thirds, put them together and see what they can make. When they see that a whole circle with one-third over can be made from

118

it, tell them that such a fraction is improper because since the numerator is larger than the denominator it is really a whole -lH1mber or a mixed number.

Follow the same procedure with other combinations of fractions using parts of circles to make the work concrete. Then give additional exercises such as the following:

Below you will find a list of fractions. Some are proper and some are improper. Draw a line down the center of a sheet of paper. On the left of this line place proper fractions; on the right place improper fractions.

1/3

2/5

6/4

4/2

3/6

3/1

5/4

1/8

5/6

2/4

2/6

2/3

1/2

3/2

1/5

1/4

4/3

2/1

3/5

6/5

Write by the side of each answer proper or improper.

2/7 2/6 2/5 1/3 2/4

+ ++++

4/7 3/6 1/5 1/3 1/4

= = = = =

4/113120////9858+++++64534/1////85980

= = = = =

Add the following fractions:

1/2

1/3

2/3

3/6

4/6

1/2

2/3

1/3

4/6

4/6

5/6

5/6

5/6

4/6

3/6

2/6

1/6

3/6

5/6

3/6

5/6

5/6

4/3

6/3

4;3

5/6

6/6

2/3

1/3

4/3

2/3

3/3

4/3

5/3

6/3

2/3

2/3

2/3

2/3

3/3

Change the improper fractions to mixed numbers.

15/6 ~ 9/6 == 11/3 = 5/3 -=

13/6 = 3/2 = 7/3 = 5/2 -=

7/6 = 10/6 -=
8/3 == 14/3 ==

8/6 = 11/6 = 4/3 = 10/3 =

119

Objective 4

-<t.;

Give to the pupils circles of the same size that have been

divided into halves, thirds, fourths, and sixths. Ask the question,

"Which would you rather have, half of a pie or two-fourths of a

pie?" Then, whatever the answer, tell the children to take those

parts marked 1/2 and two marked 1/4 and prove the answer. Do

the same for 1/3 and 2/6, 2/3 and 4/6, 1/2 and 3/6. Then ask the

pupils to take the part of a circle marked 1/2 and cover it with

any parts that exactly fit it. Again there will be an experience to

develop the concept that 1/2 = 2/4 and 1/2 = 3/6. Do the same

for 1/3; for 2/6.

After this experience with concrete objects, write 1/2 = 2/4

on the board and ask what number the numerator and denomi-

nator of 1/2 were multiplied by to change 1/2 to 2/4 or higher

terms. Do the same for 1/3 = 2/6, 2/3 = 4/6, 1/2 = 3/6.

Then write on the board 2/4 = 1/2. Ask what number both

numerator and denominator were divided by to change 2/4 to 1/2

or to lower terms. Do the same for other fractions such as 3/6,

2/6, 4/6, etc.

Below is a list of fractions. Supply the missing numera-

tors as 2/3 = 6/9.

1/2 = /4 1/2 = /10 1/3 = /15 1/4 = /12 1/6 = /24

1/2 = /8 1/3 = /9 1/3 = /12 1/4 = /16 1/6 = /12

1/2 = /12 1/3 = /6 2/3 = /15 3/4 = /8 5/6 = /30

1/2 = /6 2/3 = /6 1/4 = /8 3/4 = /12 1/6 = /18

Change the following fractions to lower terms; as, 4/6 = 2/3.

10/12

4/8

2/6

3/9

4/10

6/12

3/15

2/4

5/10

8/12

6/10

3/3

9/12

3/18

8/10

6/8

4/16

3/12

6/9

5/15

Add the following fractions with unlike denominators:

1/2

2/3

1/6

. 1/6

3/4

1/6

5/8

3/8

3/12

1/2

113

2/3

1/4

1/12

-

-

2/3

2/5

1/9

3/10

1/2 2/3
-
1/2 5/6
120

3/4 1/6
-
1/7 1/14

3/4 1/8
-
1/2 1/4 1/8
-

2/3

1/3

1/2

1/4

-:,,_,.-2..: 1/6

3/4

2/3

2/3

1/2

1/2

1/12

5/12

5/6

1/3

Add the following fractions:

3/4

2/3

3/4

1/2

5/8

1/2

1/2

3/8

1/4

1/2

1/3

1/2

1/4

2/3

1/6

1/2

3/4

2/8

1/2

2/3

2/4

1/8

1/3

2/6

4/8

1/4

1/2

2/6

3/8

1/2

1/2

2/4

1/3

1/2

3/4

2/4

2/8

2/4

2/3

2/3

7/8

3/4

3/4

2/6

5/6

3/4

In the above answers write the improper fractions in the column marked improper and the proper fractions in the column

marked proper.

PROPER

IMPROPER

Teaching How to Borrow in Subtraction.

Have pupils take out their circles and stack all similar parts together as halves in one place, fourths in another, etc. Then put an example such as 42 1/2 on the board. Ask what we do when we

don't have enough of anything. If necessary put an example like
this on the board: 2~ This will lead the child to see that he must

borrow. Then direcIThe children to take enough halves to make
a whole. Ask how many halves they had. Then write ; ij~

and subtract. Sum up by asking how many halves a wholeone contains. Then ask, "When we want to subtract halves and must borrow a whole one, how many halves does it always contain?" Write 1 = 2/2. Do the same for thirds, fourths, sixths, etc. After this use of concrete material, children usually understand that the

121

wholes borrowed must be changed into as many parts as the -:.--,.-2..: .. denominator of the fraction indicates.
Exercises. In making exercises, it is well for the teacher to analyze the
process being taught and provide practice in all the likely situations. For example, in subtraction provide for such practice as the following:

7 2 2/3

7 1/3 2 2/3

7 2/3 2 2/3

7 2/3 2

In the first example there is no fraction in the minuend. In the second the fraction in the minuend is less than the fraction in the subtrahend. In the third the fractions are the same, and in the fourth the only fraction is in the minuend.
Subtracting Fractions of Unlike Denominators.
Below we have a group of examples in which we are, first, to reduce to common denominators and, second, to subtract. Borrow when necessary.

3/4 3/4 1/2 5/8
--

1/2 11/2 53/8 61/2

1/3

3/8

23/4 32/3

11/6 2/3
-
101/3 1/2

23/8 11/2
5/6 2/3

32/3 21/6
47/8 33/4

123/4 53/8
71/2 33/4

12/3 11/2
101/4 61/8

82/3 55/6
81/4 1/2

From four and one-third subtract one and five-sixths. From eleven and three-fourths subtract two and seven-eights. From three and five-eights subtract two and three-fourths. Subtract the following fractions:

62/3 21/9
-
63/4 1/3
-
154/5 31/2

23/5 11/2
62/3 1
33/4 12/3
-

52/3 41/4
7 32/3
61/4 31/3
--

42/3 14/9
135/9 42/3
39/12 21/4

41/3 11/4
114/5 21/2
77/9 12/3

122

73/4 65/12
-:.--.,.-2..:

7 68/9

161/5 71/2

Subtract the following:

5/8

3/5

3/4

3/8

1/5

1/4

3/4

2/3

81/2

3/4

2/3

21/2

32/3 2/3

69/10 113/8 1/10 5

43/4 21/4

51/3 1/3

23/4 1/4

61/2 1/2

72/3 7

81/2 8

67/10 51/2

13/4 11/12

3/9 1/9
71/3 71/3
81/2 8
67/8 3
101/2 91/2

1/2 1/2
21/4 1/4
21/2 1
103/9 41/9
131/3 101/3

Teaching Measures
In teaching measures it is very important that children have experiences with concrete materials. In dealing with measures of length each pupil should have a foot ruler. Several yard sticks should be provided for the grade. Experiences such as the following are valuable:
Measure the length of the schoolroom, the width. Measure the length of the door, the width. Measure the top of the desk, size of windows, length and
width of hall, etc. Measure height of various pupils in grade. Measure distance between various kinds of trees on the
campus. Give practice in estimating distances and then measuring to
check on estimate.
Measuring Time.
Have each child make the face of a clock of cardboard with movable hands. Some may have Roman numerals, others Arabic. Give actual practice in placing hands in various positions and reading the time.
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Measuring Liquids.

-0.;--,.-.2.:

Preferably, secure pint, quart, and gallon measures. If this

is not possible, get empty cans or jars of the exact capacity. Pro-

vide opportunity for children to fill the various containers with

water, developing concretely and inductively the concepts of

relationship of amount.

USING LANGUAGE TEXTS
In using any textbook the teacher must decide upon the procedure she will follow. One course is to take the lessons as they come in the book one after the other. Another course is to select some large topic such as "Learning to Write," "Learning to Speak," etc., and use the material in the text as it is needed in the development of the topic. Most teachers have for some time organized material in the social studies around units of work because they feel that the experiences provided are more meaningful. Experimentation shows that the same is true in the field of language. This record suggests one way of organizing language to make it vital in the school program.
All children need to learn to express themselves in writing, so the topic, "Learning to Write," was chosen. Objectives desirable for the particular group of children were next set up. These were organized as objectives of content and objectives of form. Objectives of content will doubtless be the same in any situation, whereas objectives of form will vary according to the needs of a particular group of children.
After the objectives were set up, the next step was the examination of the text to discover the material available in achieving the objectives. Sections dealing with the writing of paragraphs were used as reference material when the class began writing paragraphs. Sections dealing with such specific skills as the writing of conversation, using capitals, forming plurals, etc., were used when the writing of the children showed a need for it. For example, writing conversation correctly was not set up as an original objective in this unit, but when a large number of the children used direct discourse and began to ask, "How do we write conversation?" lessons from the text dealing with the skill were used. The significant aspect is that children asked to learn it. Detailed description of procedure follows.
Suggestions
1. Have each child make of butcher's paper an envelope in which to file, without folding, each paper that he writes.
2. Mark errors but do not make corrections. Return papers and

124

let each child try to find what is wrong and correct it. Give help only when necessary. -~ Call attention to mistakes involving principles stated on the chart as, "See Rule 3", "Rule 4", etc. This makes the chart functional. 4. Each time papers are written select some of the best to place on the bulletin board. Call attention to these. Change them frequently.
Procedures
The simplest form of expressing an idea is in a single statement. To expand this idea a paragraph is developed. In the fifth and sixth grades children are taught to develop an idea through the paragraph. In order to do this they must have experiences.
In this activity a print of "The Boy with a Torn Hat" was presented to the children for careful study. The boys and girls were easily directed into a discussion of what the picture told them. The children were asked to turn to their texts ("Language W,ays," grade 6, p. 47, 51-53; "Language Ways," grade 5, p. 46-47). There they found out those things to be remembered when writing a paragraph.
These paragraphs were read by the teacher and comments made. It was found that many statements were written that were not related to the main idea. The teacher helped the children to make an outline of suggestions that might be expressed in sentences. A large per cent of the class wanted to write the paragraph over and were permitted to do so.
When these second writings were read, it was found that more of the class had got the idea of related statements. A very good exercise was introduced at this point. After a discussion of the topic sentence was read in the texts ("Language Ways," grade 5, p. 40-42; "Language Ways," grade 6, p. 47-53), a number of paragraphs were read and the topic sentence designated in each. Some topic sentences were put on the blackboard, and the children made statements that would expand each into a paragraph. Each child then took one of the topic sentences and expanded it.
An exercise was prepared to test the child's ability to recognize ideas related to the main idea. The topic sentence was then written, and all statements made by the children and others were written under this topic sentence. The children were asked to write "yes" or "no" by each statement.
A chart was made and put on the wall in the front of the room. This chart had on it the simple things to remember when writing a paragraph.
125

Remember to:

.1. Make a plan.

-<t.:

2. Leave margins.

3. Indent. 4. Begin each statement with a capital.

5. Punctuate the end of the sentence. 6. Check your paper.

In writing the paragraphs it was found that the pupils needed

drill upon correct forms of the possessive. Reference to the text furnished material for study and exercises to be developed.

Exercises were prepared by the teacher to give further practice in correct form of possessive. In this initial effort to teach the

children how to write a paragraph it was found necessary to refer

to sections of the text for study, and exercises were given to establish correct form.
Study and practice were given to develop skills in capitaliza-

tion, in showing possession, in writing conversation, in the use of verb forms, in the use of certain contractions, and in punctuating

certain expressions. After learning to write a paragraph the next step was to
learn to write short themes or stories. Articles for the school

newspaper furnished an excellent medium for this development. After discussing the topics of interest to the children suitable

for articles for the paper, each child was allowed to select one topic for development. At this point a lesson was taught on

developing an outline. Attention was called to pages 132ff. in the fifth grade text
("Language Ways") and pages 97ff. in the sixth grade text

("Language Ways"). The important things about making an out-

line were read and discussed. There were not enough topics for each pupil to have a different one so those choosing the same topic

were asked to make an outline. They worked together. After the pupils had made their outlines, one from each group put the outline on the board. With the help of the teacher and children each

outline was analyzed and criticized. When the teacher thought the work of making the outline was done as well as could be with

children of this level of achievement, the pupils were allowed to write.
These papers were given to the teacher for reading and

marking errors. Again it was found necessary to give more drill

on capitalization, punctuation, writing conversation, forming plurals of nouns, showing possession, correct use of verb forms, and paragraph development. Exercises were found at the end of

the sixth grade text but the teacher provided the material for most of these drills.

126

In the social science period the children were studying about industries of the South. Almost daily there was need for reports "hom committees and different individuals. These reports were often written first. In writing these reports attention was paid to all the work done in language and each child checked his report by standards set up in learning to write. Every time a paper was written it was checked by these standards.
No set time or number of papers was determined in the beginning. The program of each day furnished the stimulation for the writing. The teacher was careful to get the writing done when it would fulfill a desired need. There were only few occasions when any child expressed a wish not to write when he was asked to do so.
After the pupils had written reports and papers of different kinds for three weeks, it became necessary to extend the drills for correct forms to include more than those exercises at first set up. The brighter children had need to use titles of books, titles of respect, and expressions of strong feeling. For a few lessons the text was used to give basis for discussions and exercises for drill. Much emphasis was placed upon recreational reading. The making of simple book reports quite often provided stimulus for writing. Correct form in writing the title was required. In this way the habit of writing the title of the book was formed in a natural situation.
The members of the sixth grade and some of the fifth grade used exclamatory sentences but were not sure of correct punctuation. A lesson was given on sentence form. The text was consulted for information on different kinds of sentences. Exercises were developed to help the children distinguish one form from the other. The text gave excellent material but not enough to fix the skill. In fact one, two, or three exercises did not suffice. From time to time sentences were studied as to form.
A drill on titles of respect and their use was very natural in writing letters. One of the objectives of the unit was to learn to write different kinds of letters correctly. The text was used in studying titles of respect and in getting the correct form of different kinds of letters. The experiences of the children furnished all the titles for study. Those commonly used by the children and their associates were learned in correct form. In studying the text on letter writing many titles of respect were found.
It was hard to get a very good letter written just as an exercise, but an occasion for writing real letters arose. A member of the class had moved to Florida and had written a letter to the teacher in which she expressed a desire to have letters from
127

members of the class. Many of the girls were ready to write a . letter to their former classmate. Several wrote letters to friends <t.:. and relatives. One pupil brought the answer to hers to the
teacher. It was found that material could be secured for the social science unit by writing letters requesting it. A teacher from the college came in and gave some valuable help in art. A letter of thanks was written by each one to this instructor. The best one was chosen by the pupils and it was sent to her. Some of the children were out of school on account of illness. A letter was sent to express regret for illness and a wish for a speedy recovery and return to school. One of the student teachers lost a relative. A letter of condolence was written. At the close of the social science unit invitations were written inviting friends to the program. Before writing each type of letter the text was consulted for correct form. There were many occasions to stress all forms of correct grammar usage in these letters. Each time the work was checked by standards set up.
In the texts ("Language Ways," grade 6, p. 164; "Language Ways," grade 5, p. 146) there is an exercise on making rhymes. The children had some fun working with these exercises for there were many very crude statements made in completing the second line of the couplet. The teacher encouraged the children to make couplets that rhymed. Some good ones were made but most of them were quite simple. However, they caught the idea of making the ends of two lines rhyme.
The next step was most constructive. The teacher read many short poems from collections made for children. These were enjoyed very much. A few of them were discussed and analyzed. An effort was made to get the children to see that a main idea was expressed to which each line contributed. They were asked to try to write a poem.
At this point everyone wanted to try. In a short time several were ready to present their compositions. Most of them were rather trite, but two or three had expressed an excellent idea in rhyme. These were put on the blackboard. They were discussed from the standpoint of the principles of writing poems and rhymes found in text and set up by the class.
The teacher asked if they would like to write poems to be read to the class next day. Several in the class expressed a desire to do so. When these were presented, it was found that a few of the children had good ideas about writing poems. These were encouraged to write their ideas in rhyme on many topics. The plan was to watch the possibilities for creative writing in these and to furnish them an incentive to continue their efforts.
128

Whenever any work was done well, full recognition was .. _~iven to it. The bulletin board was used to exhibit excellent
productions. The children made a folder in the art class to be used as a filing case for work that had been approved by the teacher. Many of the children would rewrite papers many times to get them approved for the folder.
This unit laid the foundation for all written work done during the year.
CLOTHING
This unit was taught in a general science course. It was preceded by units on the "Human Body," "Food," "Relationship of the Body to Physical Surroundings," "Disease," and is to be supplemented by work on "Shelter and Machines." It is one of a series of units on man in relation to his environment, and has been written from actual trial and experimentation.
Overview
We have seen that man is a machine and, being a machine, he
needs energy, uses fuel, and, therefore, liberates heat energy. The body of man, like all machines, works best at a definite temperature. This temperature is 98.6 Fahrenheit. Maintaining this temperature is quite a difficult task. We have found that the body can regulate its own temperature to some extent by perspiring and by opening and closing blood vessels near the skin. But even with these adjustments man was formerly limited in his places of abode. In desert places the sun and sand became too hot for his body. At night the rapid change to cold caused too sudden a drop in body heat. In moist climates he could not withstand the excessive humidity which prevented perspiration. In frigid zones he could not keep his body up to the required warmth. Man, having intelligence, realized the limitations which nature had placed upon him and through this intelligence produced fabrics from which clothes could be made.
In our generation clothes are used because clothes are supposed to be worn. Laws prohibit us from discarding them. Decency requires them. In this generation clothes are worn for the sake of appearance and to satisfy a desire to be "dressed up:' But the all-important fact still remains that clothes are used for protection against cold, heat, and moisture and that man's range of dwelling places depends almost entirely on clothing. Without clothing, along with shelter and heating devices, life would be confined to the temperate zones, lands would be more crowded than now and civilization would not have reached its present stage of development. Can you tell why?
129

The kinds of clothes we wear have been determined through .... scientific study. The effect on fabrics of all physical conditions -<t.. has been investigated and the suitability of each fabric noted.
There is a definite reason, for instance, why we wear cotton in summer and wool in winter. There is a reason for wearing light clothes in summer.
To properly understand fabrics and their behavior it is necessary to understand their structure and identification. When one buys wool one would like to know that he has really bought wool. By very simple tests a fabric can be recognized. In this study we shall find that each individual fabric has a characteristic appearance under the microscope. Furthermore, we shall learn that they all react differently on being burned, on being treated with dry heat, on being tested with litmus, lead acetate, and olive oil. Several other reactions will be noted. These tests can be made at home, and can be used to definitely determine fabric composition.
A discussion of proper use of fabrics for varying climatic conditions is very important. We must explain why silk is cooler than cotton, why wool is warmer than silk, why furs are warmer than wool. We must show the reason why white is cooler than black, or deep blue is warmer than light yellow. We must prove or disprove the fact that loosely woven fabrics are warmer than tightly woven fabrics. By obtaining this knowledge we are in a better position to select clothing wisely.
In spite of the fact that cloth is much cheaper than it was in early times when only the wealthy could obtain good cloth, especially if it was dyed, it is still too expensive to treat carelessly. There is a right and wrong way to treat every fabric. Some fabrics, when washed, can stand the strongest of soaps, the harshest of scrubbing, the greatest of extremes of water temperature and any amount of wringing. Others are ruined by one such treatment. The method of pressing determines the life of a fabric. If all this is true, it is very necessary that we determine for ourselves these differences in treatment. Experimentation will show us the things we need to know.
It is almost impossible to prevent stains from reaching fabrics. Just as it is best to see a doctor when we are sick instead of trying to cure ourselves, we should carry bad stains to a specialist, the dry cleaner. But there are many stains that we ourselves can remove. By concerted effort we can discover the methods of removal, through demonstration by various individuals determine how safely the removal may be effected, and record our findings for future practical use.
In our present time, with all of the varying tints and shades obtainable in any kind of fabric, it seems hard to realize that
130

there was a time when very few dyes, as we call materials which color cloth, existed. Royal purple, one of the first dyes to be dis-cuvered, was obtained from a sea animal at great expense and effort and, like good cloth, belonged only to the few who had wealth. Today anyone can obtain any color of cloth desired be cause of the thousands of dyes which can be obtained so cheaply. But one difficulty arises. The same dye will not dye all fabrics; or special treatment must be employed to cause a dye to be "fast" and keep from "bleeding". Many clothes are dyed at home now, and for that reason it may be well to learn what we can of simple dyeing and test our skill in the dyeing of fabrics.
We have still one other point to consider if we are to insure complete protection of our clothes. Possibly the greatest damage done to clothing results from our negligence in the prevention of moths. As we shall discover the moth, at one stage in its life, uses certain fabrics as its source of food. Luckily we can kill the moth at this stage, or in various other stages in its development, by methods applicable to home use. We shall discover these methods of extermination.
The entire subject of clothing is most important to us, as we should now see. There are many useful facts to be gained from its study. The entire discussion is practical and so simple as to be useful in- our own home every day of our lives. With the proper effort much can be learned.
A. Objectives:
1. General-
a. To study clothing with a view to obtaining knowledge of clothing practical for home use.
b. To increase powers of the pupils in experimentation and observation.
c. To teach organization of material obtained through study.
d. To teach pupils to transfer knowledge obtained to other pupils.
e. To teach pupils to co-ordinate hand and mind.
2. Specific-
a. To study identification of cloth fibers. b. To study protective powers of cloth to the body. c. To study proper laundering methods. d. To study removal of stains. e. To study moth prevention. f. To learn lettering through chart making. g. To study dyeing methods.
131

In the development of the unit, numbers which refer to the objectives will be found. These indicate the points at which an -<t.:. attempt is made to obtain the particular objectives. For instance, A-l-d would mean, at this point we are attempting "to teach the pupil to transfer knowledge obtained to other pupils."
Development
I. Discussion of terms.
(a) Fabric (b) warp (c) woof (d) need for identification (e) sizing (f) weighting. (A-I-f)
II. Appearance and identification of fibers. (A-2-a) 1. Appearance. (1) Discussion of appearance of fibers. (A-l-f) (a) Wool (b) silk (c) linen (d) cotton (e) rayon (f) celanese. (2) Observation of fibers under microscope. (Have fibers ready.) (A-I-b)
2. Identification. (1) By burning. (A-I-b) (a) Distinguishing between animal and vegetable fibers. (b) The characteristic ash of celanese. (Have hot caustic soda ready for use.) (2) Identification by dry heat. (Have samples ready in test tubes.) (A-I-b) (a) Reactions to litmus of 6 fibers. (b) Reactions to lead acetate for 6 fibers. (Wool, positive.) (3) By alkali test (NaOH), solubility. (A-I-b) (a) Animal fibers dissolve. (b) Vegetable fibers insoluble. (4) Picric acid test. (A-I-b) (a) Animal fibers dyed by picric acid. (b) Vegetable fibers not dyed. (c) Use of test for determining adulteration. (5) Nitric acid test. (a) Animal fibers dyed yellow. (b) Vegetable fibers unchanged. (6) Olive oil test. (Linen and cotton previously tested with hydrochloric acid and dried.) (A-I-b) (a) Olive oil spreads faster on linen; forms translucent spot.
132

(7) Preparation of chart on identification. (See

method for making "index card" chart.) (A-I-c)

--2..

(A-I-e) (A-'2-f)

(8) Review. Reports on identification. (Length of reports determined by number of pupils and teacher preference.) (A-I-d) (A-I-f)

III. Clothing as a means of regulating body temperature. (A-2-b)
A. Discussion.
(1) Means by which body liberates heat. (A-I-f) (2) Effect of humidity on loss of body heat. (A-I-f)
(See "Humidity Experiment"; demonstration.) (A-I-b) (3) Effect of fabric color on ability of fabric to absorb heat. (A-I-f) (See "Heat Absorption Experiment"; demonstration.) (A-I-b)
(4) Effect of fabric texture on ability to withhold or liberate heat. (A-I-f) (a) Insulating effect of still air (warmth of furs). (b) Power of fabric to absorb or transmit moisture.

IV. Proper washing of fabrics.
(1) Have available various types of fabrics, boiling water, cold water, lye soap. Allow each individual to give some certain fabric the harshest treatment possible. Dry immediately in hot sun, press under an extremely hot iron. (A-I-b) (A-I-e)
(2) Discussion of results obtained. (A-I-d) (a) Effect of sudden changes of temperature. (b) Effect of use of "strong" soap (felting of wool) . (c) Effect of scrubbing. (d) Effect of wringing and squeezing. (e) Effect of sun drying. (f) Effect of iron heat.
(3) Bleaching and bluing. Discussion and lecture demonstration. (A-I-f) (a) Bleaching powder-cotton. (b) H 20 2-silk. (c) S02-straw.
(4) Summary. (A-I-e) (A-2-f) (a) Chart by "index card" method proper handling of individual fibers. (See "Washing Chart.")

133

V. Removal of stains. (A-2-d)

-<L.

(1) Assignment of previous day should include the

selection of certain stain removals for study by

individual students. On previous day materials

necessary to aid in removal should be placed in a

handy position where students might obtain the

ones they needed, take them home, try the experi-

ment, and be prepared to demonstrate it in class on

next day.

(2) Each student tells method of removing his assigned

(A-I-d) stain and demonstrates removal. (A-I-b)

(3) All students list stains demonstrated, and methods

(A-I-c) of removal. This will furnish each student

with (A-I-c) a permanent stain removal chart.

(Concurrent with V-2)

(4) Discussion of 3 general methods of stain removal.

(A-I-f)

(5) Dry cleaning. (A-I-f)

VI. Dyeing. (A-2-g)
(1) Discussion. (A-I-f)
(a) Sources of dyes. (b) Terms, "dye," "fast," "bleeding."
1. Characteristics of a good dye. (c) Types of dyes.
1. Direct. (a) Procedure: Lecture demonstration. (A-I-b) (b) When applicable (type of fabric).
2. Mordant. (a) Procedure: Lecture demonstration. (A-I-b) (b) Applicability (as VI, b, 1, d.) .
3. "Drug store" dyes. (a) Procedure: Lecture demonstration. (A-I-b) (b) Applicability (as above).
4. Developed (optional). (A-I-b) (a) Procedure of dyeing (lect.-dem.). (b) Applicability (as above).

VII. Moth prevention. (A-2-e) A. Reports. (A-I-d) (A-I-f) 1. Life cycle of moth (egg, lava, pupa, adult).

134

a. Length of each stage.

b. Dwelling place during stage.

-<t.:

c. Eating habits during each stage.

d. Other characteristics of each stage.

2. Relation to damage of cloth.

VIII. Preparation for summarization. (A-I-c)

IX. Summarization. (A-I-d)
A. Individual reports. Number and length determined by number of pupils and disposition of teacher.
a. Appearance of cloth fibers. b. Identification by burning. c. Identification by litmus. d. Identification by lead acetate. e. Identification by caustic soda. f. Identification by picric acid. g. Identification by olive oil test. h. Liberation of heat by body. i. Humidity in relation to body heat. j. Fabric color and heat absorption. k. Fabric texture and fabric warmth. I. The washing of silk. m. The washing of rayon. n. The washing of cotton. o. The washing of linen. p. The washing of celanese. q. The washing of wool. r. Removal of stains by absorption. s. Removal of stains by chemical action. t. Removal of stains by dissolving. u. The requisites of a good dye. v. Mordant dyes. w. Direct dyes. x. "Drug store" dyes. y. Dry cleaning. z. Developed dyes. (optional) aa. The life history of the moth. bb. Moth destruction and prevention.

X. Test. See tests following.

FABRIC WARP

List of Terms
WOOF ADULTERATION

135

SIZING

ABSORPTION

WEIGHTING
-~2.:
CELANESE

DISSOLVING CHEMICAL ACTION

RAYON

DRY CLEANING

WOOL

DYEING

SILK

FAST

COTTON

BLEEDING

ANIMAL FIBERS

DIRECT DYE

VEGETABLE FIBERS

MORDANT DYE

LITMUS

DEVELOPED DYE

LEAD ACETATE

LIFE CYCLE

CAUSTIC SODA

EGG

PICRIC ACID

LAVRA

HYDROCHLORIC ACID

PUPA

HUMIDITY

ADULT

RADIATION

EXTERMINATION

CONDUCTION

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

INSULATING

SULPHUR

FELTING

CARBON DISULFIDE

DICHLOROBENZENE

Generalizations:
1. Fabric may be adulterated by mixing of fibers or adding chemicals.
2. Fibers may be identified by their appearance under the microscope.
3. Fibers react differently to litmus when heated. 4. Heated fibers react differently to lead acetate. 5. Some fibers dissolve in caustic soda; others do not. 6. Cloth fibers absorb oils to varying degrees. 7. Fibers are either animal or vegetable. 8. Fibers leave different types of ash when burned. 9. The body liberates heat by radiation, conduction, and
perspiration. 10. Humidity of air affects body temperature. 11. Color of fabric determines its ability to absorb heat. 12. Texture of fabric determines its ability to absorb heat. 13. The washing of fabrics is determined by the individual
characteristics of each fabric. 14. Some fabrics are decomposed by heat. 15. Sudden changes of temperature ruin certain fabrics. 16. "Strong" soap weakens certain fabrics. 17. Scrubbing tears apart certain fabrics. 18. Certain fabrics are damaged when wrung out. 19. Direct sun rays hurt certain fabrics and dyes.

136

20. Stains may be removed by absorption, dissolving, and chemical action.
'2.: 21. The three main types of dyes are mordant, direct, and developed.
22. All dyes will not dye all clothes satisfactorily. 23. Moths use fabrics of certain kinds as foods. 24. Moths can be prevented easily in the home.
Index Card Chart
This type of chart was used because it is speedily made and gives opportunity for the entire class to work. The method of execution is for each member of the class to have a card and, using the lines on the index card as guiding lines, to letter on that card some one test or characteristic of the things being considered. After all cards are lettered they are arranged on a bulletin board in proper order, being held in place by thumb tacks. If appearance is desired a border may be made from ribbon or construction paper. Example:

Identification
of Fibers

IFi~, IAppearance Under Micro-

Burning Test

Litmus Test

scope

Linen

Jointed as
Cotton Stalks

Burns
Out of Flame

LI J II I f'nHnn IllFlat and Twisted

~Bru:rn~s;

Lead Acetate
Test

Ii:':: Olive
Oil Test

Picric Acid Test

:.-_--,

eelanese

Clear but Larger Than
Silk

Burns in Flame
Leaves Same as
Cloth

IRa~n J CdryilcianlLong Individual Line

II ILJW;n=nPl I=aStc=aleys~

l:J Clear Silk ,_,--CdYr_ilc_ianl_-.137

-::--.,-.1....:
Material

WASHING CHART

Change in Temp.

Strong Soap

Scrubbing

Cotton Wool Silk Linen
Celanese Rayon Material

No effect

No effect

No effect

Causes felting Causes felting Weakens

Weakens

Weakens

Weakens

Very little effect

Very little effect

Very little effect

Weakens

Weakens

Weakens

Weakens

Weakens

Weakens

Wringing

Sun Drying Iron Heat

Cotton Wool
Silk Linen
Celanese Rayon

No effect

No effect

No effect

Very little effect

No effect

Not too hot

Loosens fibers No effect

Not too hot

Very little effect

No effect

Not too hot

Loosens fibers Loosens fibers

No effect
No effect unless dyed

Melts at high temp.
Melts at high temp.

"Heat Absorption" - Reference: Everyday Problems in Science, p.304.
"Humidity Experiment" - Reference: Everyday Problems in Science, p..30l.
There is a possibility that students will not see the application of this experiment unless very careful discussion is made. The experiment itself is clear, but the connection to OO'dy temperature is usually somewhat vague in their minds.

Tests

1. Completion:

1. The addition of undesirable materials to fabrics is

known as-

.-.-,.-- ..__._. ._.._-_.._.

188

2. The horizontal fibers in cloth are called

c

c.__c<

3; Artificial fibers manufactured by man are said to be
-----2.:

4. The vertical fibers in cloth are called

_

5.

takes the yellow tinge out of clothes.

6. Foreign material added to cloth is known as

_

7. Artificial cloth manufactured from cotton is called

8. Artificial cloth manufactured from wood pulp is called

9. __.

test is used to test the acid of

basic co.ndition of fibers.

10. The presence of sulphur in a fiber can be determined by

the use of

_

II. Multi;>le choice:

1. A fiber that is not injured by a strong alkali, burns out-

sde the flame, leaves ash, turns blue litmus red is called :

(1. rayon 2. silk 3. cotton 4. wool)

_

2. A fiber that is eaten by strong alkali, burns only in the

flame, leaves a curled ash, turns red litmus blue is

called: (1. silk 2. rayon 3. cotton 4. wool)

_

3. The only fiber that gives a positive test for sulphur is:

(1. wool 2. celanese 3. linen 4. silk)

_

4. A fiber which when burned gives an ash the same shape

as the original fiber is: (1. cotton 2. celanese 3. linen

4. wool)

_

6. A fiber that appears smooth, twisted and flat under the microscope is: (I. celanese 2. silk 3. rayon 4. cotton)

6. A fiber that has the same appearance as silk under the

microscope but has a larger diameter is: (1. rayon 2.

cotton 3. celanese 4. linen)

_

7. A fiber that absorbs olive oil more rapidly than any other

fiber is: (1. cotton 2. linen 3. rayon 4. wool)

_

8. A fiber that appears jointed like bamboo under the

microscope is: (1. rayon 2. linen 3. silk 4. wool)

_

9. A fiber that appears to have scales under the microscope

is: (1. wool 2. rayon 3. celanese 4. linen)

_

10. A fiber that has lines running lengthwise with the fiber

is: (1. silk 2. rayon 3. celanese 4. cotton)

_

III. Give the following statements in as few words as possible:
1. A garment that is loosely wovenis warmer than a garment that is closely woven.

139

2. An electric fan has a tendency to keep the body cool.

-,-2.:

3. Cotton is a cool fabric.

4. The body feels warmer on a day when the humidity is

high.

5. Dark clothes are warmer than light clothes.

IV. Fill out the following chart on the proper way to launder the fibers listed:

Temp. of Type of water soap

Any

How to rinse

How to special remove. treatment the water necessary

Linen

Cotton

Rayon

Silk

Celanese

Wool

V. List under the correct heading given below the folli>wing methods of spot removal:

(A) Absorption; (b) dissolved; (c) chemical action.

1. Ink removed by bleaching powder and rinsed in am-

monia .is

_

2. Removal of grease spots by the use of a hot iron and

blotters is

._

3. Removal of grease spots by the use of carbon tetra-

chloride is

_

4. Removal of blood stains by table salt and hot water is

5. Removal of printer's ink by ether is

_

6. Removal of ink by magnesium carbonate is

_

7. Removal of grass stain by alcohol is

_

140

8. Removal of iron rust by dilute hydrochloric acid is

-:.- ..,.-.1...:

-------.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Removal of coffee stain by warm water and soap is

10. Removal of paint by turpentine is

_

VI. Write a short paragraph on the types of dyeing and the processes involved.

VII. Name the different stages in the life cycle of the moth. Tell why each is harmful and how this harm may be prevented.

Bibliography
Pieper and Beauchamp, Everyday Problems in Science, p. 291-320. Trafton and Smith, Science in Daily Life, p. 652-670. Weed, Rexford and Carroll, Useful Science For High Schools,
p.460-464. Obourn and Heiss, Modqrn Science Problems, p. 141-145. Farmer's Bulletin No. 1474, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture, Stain
Removal From Fabrics by Home Methods. (Free) Farmer's Bulletin No. 1449, U. S. Dep't. of Agriculture, March,
1926, Standard Cotton Fabrics. (Cost, 5) Farmer's Bulletin No.6, Thrift Leaflet, U. S. Dep't. of Agricul-
ture and Treasury Dep't. (Free) Van Buskirk and Others, The Science of Everyday Life, p. 312-398. Wood, George C. and Carpenter, Harry A., Our Environment:
How We Adapt Ourselves to It, Unit 2, Topic 9. Wood and Carpenter, Our Environment: How We Use and Con-
trolIt, Unit 7, Topic 22. Carpenter, Frank G., How The World is Clothed.

THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT
Approach
A good approach to this unit may be through the medium of current events. The teacher might have the pupils bring in information on the present Chinese-Japanese conflict. The question, "In what part of the world are there attempts at expansion being carried on?" may cause the pupils to give some concern to the need and causes of expansion, and would carry over into the discussion of the reasons for westward expansion. Along with this approach from the standpoint of current events would be presented pictures and maps showing the present expansive tendencies on the part of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
A second approach would be through some interesting story of pioneer life, stressing the human interest viewpoint. The story

141

of Daniel Boone might be used at an early point in the unit and

... taken up in detail later.

-<!.:

A third approach would be through the medium of motion

pictures. An excellent picture that would not fail to stimulate

the pupils into an attitude of interested inquiry is the picture,

"Wells Fargo." A discussion of this picture would aid immeasur-

ably in causing the pupils to wonder what the western movement

really was, and why and how it came about.

A fourth approach would be a report on a book (given by

some member of the class) that has recently been read. Park-

man's The Oregon Trail would serve the purpose if the pupils are

not too far advanced. The teacher presenting this unit will be

best able to select the approach because he will understand the

innate capacities and abilities of his students and interest them

according to the method most applicable in his particular case.

General Objectives
1. To develop an understanding of the forces and conditions causing the westward movement.
2. To develop an appreciation of the social, cultural, eco. nomic, and political forces resulting from the westward movement.

Immediate Objectives
1. To understand conditions in the tidewater section that stimulated migration to the West.
2. To understand the westward migration as a continuous movement.
3. To understand the significance of the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory.
4. To learn the causes and results of the Mexican War. 5. To understand the effect of the development of canals,
steamships, and railroads on expansion to the West. 6. To gain a knowledge of the acquisition and development
of the Northwest. 7. To understand the effect of the discovery of gold and
other metals on the expansion to the Pacific. 8. To understand the development of the cattle industry as
a contribution to the development of the West. 9. To understand the development of agriculture in the
West and its effect on the disappearing frontier. 10. To understand how the West fostered a growth of
democratic spirit. 11. To understand and appreciate the role of religion in
western life.

142

12. To gain an appreciation of the music, art and literature of the West.
13. To gain an appreciation of life on the western plains and in the mining camps.
14. To gain an appreciation of how the development of the West augmented the industrialization and commercialization of the East.
15. To gain a knowledge of the political institutions developed in the West and an appreciation of their effect on American political life.
Learning Exercises
1. On an outline map of the United States indicate by various colors the following regions: a. Tidewater b. Piedmont c. Great Valley d. Blue Ridge e. Five gateways across the Appalachian Mountains f. Proclamation Line
2. Fill in a map outline showing the following: a. New England settlement (Barker, Dodd and Webb, The Growth of a Nation, p. 115) b. Middle colonies (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 115) c. Virginia colonies (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 110) d. Southern colonies (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 110)
3. Fill in on map outline the thirteen original colonies. (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 168)
4. Have essays written on the following: a. The western movement, 1636-1736 b. The western movement, 1673-1815 c. Influence of the frontier on American history (Latane, Htstory of the American People, p. 289-314; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, A Unit Rist"Ory of the United States, p. 328-343; and Barker, Dodd and Webb, Th'e Growth of a Nation, p. 228, 284-292)
5. On an outline map locate the followil'lg:
a. Boone's Trail
b. Cumberland Road c. Frontier Line of 1815 d. Boundaries of the United States in 1820 (Latane,
p. 291, 137; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 347, 216218; and Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 291)
148

6. Reports on the following:

a. Florida controversy (Hamm, Bourne and Benton,

-<t..

p. 70; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 283)

b. Florida ceded to England (Barker, Dodd and Webb,

p. 136-138; Latane, p. 118)

c. The exploration of Florida by the Spanish (Hamm,

Bourne and Benton, p. 5)

d. Florida acquired by treaty (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 288; Latane, p. 303-381; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 221)

7. Prepare an account of:

a. The American land campaign of 1812, 1813 and 1814 (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 300-304)
b. Naval history of the war of 1812 (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 309-310)
c. British campaign of 1814 (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 302)

d. The Battle of New Orleans (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 307; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 234-238;

Latane, p. 272-287)

8. Make a list of obstacles which the pioneers met after crossing the Mississippi River.

9. Write an imaginary diary of a trip to the West in a prairie schooner.

10. Make a collection of pictures from old magazines, picture books, etc., on frontier life.

11. Make a collection of old firearms, Indian relics, etc.

12. Have a round table discussion on the more important phases of the Mexican War. (Latane, p. 345, 347, 349; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 331, 332, 335; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p.

382-383) 13. Debate---.Resolved, That the United States was justified
in waging war on Mexico. (Latane, p. 345-352; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 335-339; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 382-383)

14. Have floor talks made on routes to the West and methods of travel. (Latane, p. 291-301; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 372)

15. Have oral report on Oregon difficulties. CLatane, p. 304, 339-344; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 263-265, 329-334; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 215,290,342, 370,375)

144

16. Have a panel discussion on the Gadsden Purchase.

(Latane, p. 388; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 338-

- <L.

339, 699; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 216,429, 569)

17. Discuss the mining frontier and the gold rush. (Latane, p. 350-550; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 216, 429, 569)

18. Write a theme on one of the following: a. The effects of the westward movement. (Latane, p. 298-313; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, 328-343) b. Effect of the land system and the Northwest Ordinance on the westward movement.

19. Fill in on the map outline the territorial growth of the
United States including: a. The United States to the treaty of 1783 b. The Louisiana Purchase, 1803 c. The Florida treaty, 1819-1821 d. Annexation of Texas in 1845 e. Land acquired by treaty with Mexico in 1848 f. Gadsden Purchase of 1853 g. Land acquired by settlement with England in 1846
(Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 391)

20. Make a hall of fame with relation to the settling of the territory west of the thirteen original colonies. Place in it ten persons you consider the greatest in this development; be able to defend your choice.

21. Report on the following:
a. Rufus Putnam (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 215, 284) b. Daniel Boone (Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 73) c. James Robertson (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 214;
Latane, p. 137) d. John Sevier (Latane, p. 139, 203, 239) e. Colonel Josiah Harman f. General Anthony Wayne (Hamm, Bourne and Ben-
ton, p. 193) g. The Northwest Ordinance (Barker, Dodd and Webb,
p. 144-145) h. Government land policy (Latane, p. 294; Barker,
Dodd and Webb, p. 226-234) i. Canals (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 326, 328, 356,
398; Latane, p. 371-372) j. Highways to the West k. Erie Canal (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 329, 331,
399)

145

1. William Henry Harrison (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 298, 302, 308; Latane, p. 271, 279, 335-336)
-::--.,-.2.:
22. Make reports on the following:
a. Alamo (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 379) b. Covered wagon (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 371,
404, 552; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 248) c. Pony Express (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 401, 403,
553-556) d. Part railroads played in the westward movement e. Stage coach lines (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 49;
Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 248) f. Sutter g. John Jacob Astor h. General Custer i. William F. Cody (Latane, p. 598) j. Wild Bill Hickok k. Sitting Bull 1. David Crockett (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 379) m. The "Forty-niners" (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p.
430) n. The political influence of the West o. Alaskan colonization project (Barker, Dodd and
Webb, p. 535,631) p. Sam Houston (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 309,378,
380; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 332) q. The Mormons (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 546, 569) r. Santa Anna (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 302, 388,
445; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 295, 337; Latane, p. 280, 347, 349, 366, 433,437) s. Winfield Scott (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 302, 388)
23. Fill in on the map outline the following:
a. Oregon Trail b. ,California Trail c. Santa Fe Trail d. Southern TI'ail (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 215)
24. How did the United States acquire each of the following?
a. California (Latane, p. 347,350,362; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 338; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 383-389,429)
b. Utah (Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 338) c. Oregon (Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 290, 342-370;
Latane, p. 304, 339-344; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p.334)
146

d. Arizona and New Mexico (Hamm, Bourne and Ben-

-----2..:

ton, p. 338; Barker, Dodd and Webb,p. 76, 371-389,

437)

25. Determine the main provisions of the following: a. Homestead Act (Latane, p. 554; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 429-450) b. Dawes act (Latane, p. 549; Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 453) c. Panic of 1873 (Hamm, Bourne and Benton, p. 554555; Barker, Dodd and Webb, p. 530)

26. Make a graph showing the population of the United States on the following dates: 1776, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1850, 1865, 1870, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920 and 1930.

27. Keep notebook with following included: Written work, maps, charts, graphs, notes on class reports, lectures by

instructor and outline of all books read.

28. Read one of the following books and report orally on it: Allen, Charles F., David Crocket, Scout Barr, Amelia Edith, Remember the Alamo Clemens, Samuel L., Life on the Mississippi Cooper, James Fenimore, The Pioneers Hough, Emerson, The Covered Wagon Lockridge, R. F., George Rogers Clark, Pioneer Hero of the Old Northwest Parkman, Francis, The Oregon Trail Roosevelt, Theodore, Episodes from the Winning of the West Vestal, Stanley, Kit Carson; The Happy Warrior of the

Old West

Evaluation

1. True-False: Place a plus (+) in the parentheses before the statements that are true and a minus ( - ) before those that are false.
( ) 1. A frontier is usually thought of as an unsettled area where people may begin life anew.
( ) 2. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, America always had one or more frontiers.
( ) 3. Democracy was the prevailing spirit among the frontiersmen.
( ) 4. A dreary outlook on life was characteristic of the frontiersmen.
( ) 5. The frontiersmen are to be criticized for their lack of self-confidence.

147

( ) 6. The frontiersmen loved isolation and were un-

<z..:

sociable by nature.

( ) 7. The Proclamation Line of 1763 prevented success-

fully migration to the West.

( ) 8. By the close of the revolution the boundaries of the

original colonies were definitely fixed.

( ) 9. Daniel Boone led the settlers into Kentucky very

early.

( ) 10. We based our claim to the Northwest Territory on

George Rogers Clark's conquest.

( ) 11. The Ordinance of 1789 admitted Kentucky to

statehood.

) 12. Lewis and,Clarke are remembered for their leader-

ship in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

( 13. Spain tried to induce the settlers in Kentucky and

Tennessee to break away from the eastern states

by keeping the Mississippi River closed.

( ) 14. The Pinkney Treaty opened the Mississippi to

American trade.

15. Since David Crockett followed the moving

frontier, he is known as a typical frontiersman.

( 16. Any state carved out of the Northwest Territory

was eligible for statehood when its free male in-

habitants reached 20,000.

( ) 17. The Louisiana Territory was purchased from

Spain.

) 18. Monroe and Livingston negotiated the Louisiana

Purchase.

( ) 19. The Northeast strongly favored the Louisiana

Purchase.

( ) 20. The purchase of the Louisiana Territory set a

precedent for future expansion.

( ) 21. The Louisiana Purchase increased by one-third the

size of the United States.

( ) 22. The opposition of the Northeast kept Texas out of

the Union for many years.

( ) 23. Texas was annexed by joint resolution rather than

by senate treaty.

( ) 24. Mexico owed a considerable amount of money to

American citizens at the outbreak of the war.

( ) 25. The southwestern boundary of Texas was the

Neuces River under both Spanish and Mexican

rule.

( ) 26. The Mexicans defeated General Taylor in north-

ern Mexico.

148

( 27. Scott's capture of Mexico City virtually ended the

--.2..

Mexican War.

( ) 28. The California gold rush began in 1849.

( ) 29. Our main controversy over the Northwest was

with Russia.

( ) 30. The prairie schooner was the chief means of mi-

gration to the West.

( 31. "Reannexation of Texas and Reoccupation of

Oregon" was William Henry Harrison's campaign

slogan.

32. "State of Descret" refers to Arizona.

33. The "Comstock Lode" referred to a rich deposit of

gold and silver on the border between Nevada

and Utah.

( ) 34. Gold was discovered only in California, Utah,

and Nevada.

( 35. The Vigilantes were organizations devoted to

maintaining order in western mining camps.

( ) 36. The "cow country" refers only to the Texas plains.

( ) 37. The cattle industry developed on a large scale after

the coming of the railroads.

( ) 38. The "Long Trail" referred to the southern route to

California.

( ) 39. The farmers were the last major group to come

into the western plains.

( ) 40. Sitting Bull was an unusually lazy cattle rancher

who caused trouble with the Indians of the Black

Hills.

( 41. The railroad was one of the most important fac-

tors in hastening the development of the West.

( ) 42. Oklahoma was among the first western states to

be settled.

( ) 43. The referendum, initiative, and recall are products

of the progressive spirit of the West.

( ) 44. Until recent years the West has acted as a safety

valve for the unemployed of the East.

( ) 45. Now that the frontier is closed, we are beginning

to turn our attention to conservation rather than

exploitation.

( ) 46. We might term the Alaskan colonization project

"A Search for a New Frontier."

( 47. The first settlements across the mountains were

French and Dutch.

( ) 48. The Oregon dispute was finally settled by going to

war with England.

149

( ) 49. The closing of Texas to American colonists was an

--- ..2..:

important cause of the Texas revolution.

( ) 50. President Tyler desired to annex Texas to protect

the growing American trade with her and to safe-

guard Texas from English intervention.

( ) 51. Mexico opposed the annexation of Texas by the

United States on the grounds that Texas was still

Mexican territory.

( ) 52. "Fifty-four forty or fight" referred to the Texas

boundary dispute with Mexico.

( ) 53. The Mormons were characterized by their belief

in polygamy.

( ) 54. Upon being given reservations, the Indians were

completely satisfied.

( ) 55. Unfamiliar geography kept the settlers off the

Great Plains for many years.

( ) 56. The early land laws discouraged rather than en-

couraged western migration by requiring cash

payments and the purchase of large tracts of land.

( ) 57. The Pre-emption Law of 1841 provided for free

lands for settlers.

( ) 58. Railroads were made possible by government aid

to the promoters.

( ) 59. James F. Cooper was the most outstanding writer

of the far West.

( ) 60. Bret Harte is remembered for his short stories,

such as "Luck of Roaring Camp."

II. Multiple Choice

1. The most important westward movement came after the

occurrence of

_

a. the Revolutionary War. b. the Mexican War. c. the French and Indian War. d. the War of 1812.

2. We cannot truthfully say that Mexico started the war

because

_

a. the first fighting was done on territory claimed by both sides.
b. war had not been declared when Taylor marched on Mexico.
c. the United States precipitated the conflict because of unreasonable claims.
d. Mexico met all demands of the United States.

150

3. The United States was justified in annexing Texas

because

~

~

_

-----2.:

a. there were many American citizens . making their

homes in Mexico. b. Texas had been independent for nine years. c. the United States made an attempt at neutrality

during the Texas revolution.

d. Texas was necessary to the United States.

4. The Gadsden Purchase was made

_

a. to protect the United States from Mexico. b. to gain a route for a railroad to the Pacific. c. because gold was thought to be in Arizona in large

deposits. d. to act as a buffer state between Mexico and Texas. 5. The chief incentive for western development was

a. love of adventure and exploration.

b. desire for silver and gold.

c. desire for cheap land.

d. the search for religious toleration.

6. The settlement of the West was hastened by the Home-

stead Act because

_

a. it made permanent the pre-emption policy.

b. land was opened to settlers practically free.

c. settlers were exempted from military service.

d. homesteads were guaranteed protection from

Indians.

7. The passing of the frontier was felt most keenly by

Americans during the.

_

a. period after the World War in the era of speculation.

b. the World War.

c. the Spanish American War.

d. the depression beginning in 1929.

8. To America the frontier has meant

_

a. the outer edge of civilization.

b. the wilderness.

c. the boundar~ line between the United States and

another country.

d. the beginning of Indian country.

9. Texas was settled quickly by Americans who were eager

to go there because

-_

a. they could find gold there.
b. the land was cheap and abundant.
c. there were many valuable fur animals there,
d. it was a free state.

10. Napoleon agreed to sell the Louisiana Territory to the

United States because

_

---.2.:
a. it was an expensive territory for France to keep.

b. he needed the money to carryon his wars.

c. there was danger of its being seized by Mexico.

d. he considered it worthless.

III. Match correctly:

1. Led settlers into a. Daniel Boone

Texas

2. Leader of Mormons b. Stephens Austin

________ 3. Settler of Kentucky c. Thomas Hooker

________ 4. Founded

d. Brigham Young

Connecticut ________ 5. Explored the

e. John Sevier

Louisiana Purchase

________ 6. Led the first set- f. John Jacob Astor

tlers into Oregon

_______ 7. Discovered the g. Marcus Whitman

Columbia River

_ 8. Discovered gold h. Lewis and Clarke

in California

_ 9. Southern route i. John Sutter

over the

Appalachians

_______10. First area settled j. Stephens Kearney

in North America k. Tidewater _______11. A northern route 1. Hudson and Mohawk rivers

to the West

m. Appalachian Mountains

______12. First barrier to n. Piedmont

western migration o. Cumberland Gap

IV. Time Order. (Number the following in each group in order in which they occur.)

________ 1. Settlement of Boonesboro. ________ 2. Admission of Tennessee to statehood.
__"___ 3. Settlement of Connecticut. ________ 4. Clarke's conquest of the Northwest. ______ 5. Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

________ -1. Completion of the Erie Canal. _______ 2. Permanent opening of the Mississippi River. _______ 3. First continental railway. ________ 4. Pony Express. ________ 5. Santa Fe Trail to California.

________ 1. Acquisition of Florida.

152

________ 2. Gadsden Purchase. ---.-2- _______ 3. Mexican cession of the Southwest.
________ 4. Annexation of Texas. ________ 5. Louisiana Purchase.
________ 1. Land Ordinance of 1785. ________ 2. Homestead Act. ________ 3. Specie Circular. ________ 4. Pre-emption. ________ 5. Carey Act.
V. Discussion (Give clear, concise answers.) :
1. List in the order of their occurrence the three stages of the development of the West.
2. List the three claims that the United States had to the Oregon Territory and explain briefly.
3. Of what importance is the Mexican War in American history?
ORGANIZATION OF STATE ADOPTED TEXTS FOR A
STUDY OF GEORGIA IN THE SEVENTH GRADE
The following outline is not a unit in the finished sense of the word, but an outline for the study of Georgia, using the new available textbook materials furnished by the state. There has been an attempt to organize the related materials in the texts in such a way that integration of social scienc.e, language arts, fine arts and science may be possible.
Each teacher may find it necessary or advisable, with her particular class, to set up a different organization. If so, the related references in the various texts, as indicated in the following outline, will be useful.
The only books not furnished by the state and used are: Patch and Howe, Science at Home Patch and Howe, Work of Scientists Craig and Condry, Learning About Our World
OUTLINE FOR A STUDY OF GEORGIA
PART I
A. Georgia as a Colony 1. Coming of the white man a. Ponce de Leon b. De Soto
153

2. Indian tribes in Georgia

--.-2.

a. ~uscogee&--Creeks b. Uchees

c. Cherokees

3. Settlement of Georgia

Settlement of Savannah
a. Why b. When-where c. By whom d. Leaders
(1) Oglethorpe (2) Charles Wesley (3) Tomo-chi-chi (4) Salzburgers (5) George Whitefield (6) Stephens
(7) ~usgrove
e. Bethesda

4. Georgia as an English province

a. Surrender of charter by trustees b. English governors
(1) Reynolds (2) Ellis (3) Wright c. Georgia enlarges her territory

5. Events leading to revolution

PART II
A. Revolution
1. Georgia's representatives to the Continental Congress
a. Noble W. Jones b. Archibald Bulloch c. John Houston d. LYman Hall 2. Georgia's part in the revolution a. Overthrow of royal government b. The British in Georgia c. Attack upon Savannah
3. Revolutionary leaders in Georgia a. Lieutenant Hawkins b. Daniel ~cGirth c. Count D'Estaing

154

d. Sergeant Jasper

-----2..:

e. Count Pulaski

f. Robert Sallette

g. Nancy Hart

h. Elijah Clark

i. Colonel Henry Lee

j. Anthony Wayne

k. James Jackson

4. Last phases of revolution

PART III
A. Georgia Becomes a State 1. Counties are formed Suggestion: Study county needs. Set up individual county study outline to meet those needs. a. Local county (1) History (2) County organization (3) Industries and agriculture: Tobacco Cotton Livestock Naval stores Lumber Truck farming Grain (4) Education Public schools Institutions of higher learning (5) County and community health problems (a) Communicable diseases: Typhoid Diphtheria Smallpox . Tuberculosis Brill's fever Social diseases Pyorrhea Scabes Hookworm Scarlet fever Common cold Malaria Measles

155

(b) Sanitation in home and community

Sanitation--camp, food, rural

--2..:

Septic tanks

Sewage

Sewerage

Water supply

Street cleaning Control of flies, ants, roaches, mice, rats, and

fleas (c) General health conditions of the community

(6) Community means of transportation and com-

munication

(a) Safety on the highway and at home (b) Safety in community

(7) Spiritual and aesthetic opportunities in county (a) Beauty in natural surroundings (b) Opportunities for study and enjoyment of good music, art, and literature through such agencies as: School

Church

Clubs

Libraries

Theatres

(8) Leading citizens

Past and present

PART IV
A. Ante Bellum Georgia
1. Plantation life
a. Invention of cotton gin (economic influence) b. Social activities c. Slavery 2. Education in Georgia 3. Transportation and communication 4. Scientific development a. Steamboat b. Anesthesia
(1) Crawford W. Long 5. Dissatisfaction in Georgia
a. Political unrest b. Secession c. Organization of Confederacy

156

6. Georgia's part in the War Between the States a. Joe E. Brown
-2.; b. Robert Toombs c. Alexander Stephens d. Jefferson Davis e. Robert E. Lee f. John B. Gordon g. Benjamin Hill
B. Georgia Back in the Union 1. Readjustments 2. Drawing up the Constitution 3. Henry W. Grady
PART V
A. Georgia Today 1. Agriculture Cotton Corn Tobacco Truck farming Peanuts Pecans Fruits Poultry Livestock Dairying Grains, etc. a. Does Georgia produce enough? 2. Forests a. Naval stores and lumbering b. Dr. Charles Herty c. Forest conservation What is Georgia doing to conserve? Federal aid 3. Manufactures Textiles Paper Fertilizer Canneries Sugar Ceramics 4. Mines and quarries a. Marble and granite b. Gold and silver
Hi7

5. Electrical power

a. Tallulah Falls

----2:

b. Jackson Dam

c. Rural electrification

6. Transportation and communication

7. Educational opportunities in Georgia

a. Public schools b. Colleges and universities
(1) University System of Georgia (2) Private and denominational schools c. Educational leaders today
Dr. S. V. Sanford Dr. M. D. Collins Dr. Wm. H. Kilpatrick Dr. M. L. Brittain Dr. M. S. Pittman Dr. Guy H. Wells Dr. Harmon H. Caldwell Dr. Peyton Jacob, and others

8. Opportunities for spiritual and aesthetic development

a. Schools, churches, art centers, libraries, art and music, clubs, concerts, living and working together, and literary and music clubs
b. Making a more beautiful community

9. Health problems in Georgia

a. Personal health b. Community and home sanitation c. Control of vermin (health books as reference)

10. Control of communicable diseases

a. Typhoid fever, etc. [See Part III, (5), above.]

11. Health and recreational facilities in Georgia

a. Golden Isles b. Thomasville c. Brunswick d. Augusta e. Warm Springs

f. Alto g. State asylum at Milledgeville h. Large hospitals in many cities i. Savannah j. St. Simons k. Sapalo 1. Henry Ford estate

158

12. Georgia writers

a. Sidney Lanier

----<!~

Musician

Poet

b. Robert Loveman

c. Ernest Neal

d. Frank L. Stanton

e. Harry Stilwell Edwards

f. Joel Chandler Harris

g. Henry R. Jackson

h. Margaret Mitchell

i. Caroline Miller

j. Johnny Spencer

13. State government

a. Constitution of Georgia

b. Departments of state government

c. Recent leaders

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ACTIVITIES FOR PRECEDING OUTLINE
SOCIAL SCIENCE
Texts: Barker, Dodd and Webb, The Growth of a Nation Dodge and Lackey, Advanced Geography, Georgia Supplement Evans and Coulter, First Lessons in Georgia History Sherwood, Civics and Citizenship
PART I 1. Georgia history
The Growth of a Nation, p. 55, 56, 57,48 First Lessons in Georgia History : a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 14, 15, 16 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 16, 17, 18, 19 2. First Lessons in Georgia History: a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 20, 251 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 21 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 21, 24-27,253-256 3. Settlement of Georgia a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 38,46 b. Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 9-11 c. Supplement, Civics and Citizenship, p. 1 d. Leaders
First Lessons in Georgia History:
159

(1) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 32, 34, 39, 47,

<!..:

57,60, 61, 69, 70 (2) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 54-71

(3) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 40-45

(4) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 50-53

(5) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 71-73

(6) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 74-78

(7) First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 77-80, 357

e. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 71-72

4. Georgia as an English province a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 85 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 88, 92, 97 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 100 Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 9-10 Supplement, Civics and Citizenship, p. 1

5. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 103-113

PAR[' II
A. Revolution
1. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 119-125
Supplement, Civics and Citizenship, p. 1-2 a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 112 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 127-128 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 121, 133, 129
2. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 125, 167 a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 125-130, 131-135 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 136-138 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 139-142
3. Revolutionary leaders in Georgia
a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 146 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 146-149 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 155, 156, 157, 158 d. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 159-160 e. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 161-163 f. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 169-172 g. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 173-177 h. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 178-181, 182-184 i. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 185-187 j. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 190 k. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 192-195
4. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 182-199 (Make salt and flour relief map of Georgia.)

160

PART III
A;t.:Georgia Becomes a State
1. Counties are formed
First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 75, 132-133, 201-207, 214-235, 247 (map) Civics and Citizenship, p. 356, 348 a. References
(1) Use county history if there is one. Consult older citizens.
(2) Consult county officials. (3) Consult county demonstration and farm agents.
Visit local centers of industry. Make collections and exhibits of county products. (4) Education Visit other schools or classes. Visit institutions of higher learning. Call in visitors from these centers to talk to class. Make maps, charts, graphs, explaining school program. (5) County health problems Refer to (5) under Science and Health. (b) Civics and Citizenship, p. 76-106 (c) Civics and Citizenship, p. 86-100
(Set up better standards of living at home and school. Put into practice in daily living with children at school, as more desirable and regular personal habits, helping to make school a rlOre healthful place in which to live.) Posters and charts may be used to stimulate interest. (6) Transportation and communication Visit transportation and communication centers as: Railway, post office, airport, "bus" station, printing office, Western Union office, library, and radio station. (a) Civics and Citizenship, p. 117-154 (7) Civics and Citizenship, p. 64-69 Survey to find out number and kinds of religious sects in county. Make a summary of opportunities afforded by churches, schools, clubs, libraries, and theatres. Call in local leaders in these various fields to help. (8) Consult older members of the community for leaders of the past. Observe civic interest of citizens in community now.
161

PART IV
--2.:. A. Ante Bellum Georgia
1. First Lessons in Georgia Histm ~/, p. 230-240a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 208-209 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 235-240
2. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 38, 75, 268, 257-259 3. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 233, 235, 260-263
The Growth of a Nation, p. 396-404 4. a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 226-229
(Model of this boat may be seen in courthouse in Savannah.) b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 264-267 The Growth of a Nation, p. 404-407 5. Dissatisfaction in Georgia a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 268-309 and The Growth of a Nation, p. 427-456 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 268-309 and The Growth of a Nation, p. 427-456 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 268-309 and The Growth of a Nation, p. 427-456 6. Georgia's part in the War Between the States Leaders: a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 273-278, 280,289301,321,331 b. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 270, 300, 312 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 281-283 Readings in Georgia Lite;rature, p. 283-286 d. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 281, 300, 322, 327; also encyclopedias and Story of Our Nation e. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 296 Growth of a Nation, p. 457-515 (A full length portrait of General Lee hangs in courthouse in Savannah.)
B. Georgia Back in the Union
1. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 299-306 2. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 309
The Growth of a Nation, p. 532-543 3. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 315-318
PART V
A. Georgia Today
Industrial development
162

1. Agriculture Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 19-27
--2.; First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 350-352 Pleasant and Profitable Farming, p. 1-28, 68-131,239-267, 316-336 ' Write to the State Department of Agriculture, Atlanta, Georgia, for information concerning agricultural situation in Georgia. a. Amount of production in Georgia b. Amount Georgia buys from other sections c. Georgia's exports and imports Call in county farm agent to talk to class. Read: "Age of Machinery and Invention", The Growth of a Nation, p. 544-585.
2. Forests a. Naval stores and lumbering Pleasant and Profitable Farming, p. 281-296 First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 353-354 Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 31-34 Civics and Citizenship, p. 211-218 Write to State Department of Natural Resources.
3. Manufactures First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 355-356 Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 27-31 Civics and Citizenship, p. 205-211 Make maps of Georgia locating various industrial centers. Visit near-by centers or local centers of industrial importance. Let various cla~ groups interview heads of various industrial departments. The Growth of a Nation, Chapter XXIII
4. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 354-355 Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 34-37
5. Electrical power a. b. Georgia map Locate Tallulah Falls and Jackson, Georgia. Write to Georgia Power Company, Atlanta, Georgia, for information concerning electrical power in Georgia and the service of Georgia Power Company. c. Consult county agent for information concerning TVA and rural electrification. Visit local Georgia Power Company office to see many appliances.
6. Transportation and communication Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 37-40
163

First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 260-263

Visit modern centers of transportation and communi-

--2;

cation as: Post office, radio broadcasting station, air-

port, telegraph office, railway center, docks, telephone

exchange.

Civics and Citizenship, p. 238-259

The Growth of a Nation, p. 716-721

7. Educational opportunities in Georgia a. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 332-339, 396 b. Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 49-50 Make maps showing educational centers in Georgia, using colored dots to indicate state supported and privately supported schools. Write to various schools for bulletins or yearbooks. c. Identify these educational leaders with type of work they are doing and institutions with which they are connected. This information may be gathered from catalogues obtained from various colleges. Civics and Citizenship, p. 38-64 First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 365
8. Opportunities for spiritual and aesthetic development Civics and Citizenship, p. 64, 70
a. Organize a literary club or glee club or both if interest is good. Visit churches, schools, museums or libraries of interest in local community or near-by city.
b. Civics and Citizenship, p. 188-204 Have physical examinations by county health officer and dental examination by local dentist. Teacher may weigh children, test vision and hearing.
9. Health problems in Georgia a. Visit well-kept homes, stores, public buildings. Note all features that build for better health. b. Visit downtown section in any town or city. Investigate means of disposing of garbage and waste. Disposal of waste in rural communities. Civics and Citizenship, p. 76-100
10. Control of communicable diseases See county health study No. (5).

11. Health and recreational resorts in Georgia
a. Resorts in Georgia b. Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p. 47-49 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 357-358 d. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 360

164

e. Write to chamber of commerce in various centers for further information.
f. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 44 g. Tuberculosis (health texts) Civics and Citizenship, p. 107-117, 168-204 First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 357-358-359-360
Make maps locating Georgia health and recreational resorts. 12. Georgia writers a. Sidney Lanier and others First Lessons in Georgia History, p, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344 Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 223 13. State government a. Civics and Citizenship, Georgia Supplement-"Civil Government of the State of Georgia" "State and Local Government", p. 327-366 b. Civics and Citizenship, "Choice of Public Officials", p.367-381 First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 219-221 c. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 362-373
LANGUAGE ARTS
Texts: Allen and Briggs, Behave Yourself Sullivan, Lance and Paul, "New Language Goals"
PART I
A. Georgia as a Colony 1. Oral reports and discussions How to make a report: a. Pronunciation, p. 230 b. Enunciation, p. 232 c. Speaking to a group, p. 234 2. Using the dictionary Individuals may choose topics for discussion from suggested outline in 1 and 2. 3. Written reports: a. Outline of report (1) Form, p. 5 (2) Content b. Paragraphs (1) Punctuation (2) Capitalization (3) Use of hyphen
165

4. Dictionary experiences

-.2.,.

Look up words taken from various texts that have been

diffcult to pronounce or meaning not clear.

"New Language Goals", p. 216

Study of verbs ("New Language Goals", p. 39-63)

PART II
A. Revolution
1. Write a paragraph or more giving information concerning the Georgia representatives. "New Language Goals", p. 2, 180-181
2. Class discussions "New Language Goals"-Conversation, p. 2
3. Oral and written reports Oral-"New Language Goals", p. 238-240 Written reports-"New Language Goals", p. 242-244 Mter corrections are made, rewrite for class book. Base English lessons on errors made in oral and written work.
PART III
A. Georgia Becomes a State
Study of county: Divide class into groups. Teacher and class set up outline for county study. List sources of information. Where personal interviews are necessary, a chosen member from each group will go for interview with local agents, farmers, business men. Each group to list things they want to know before group representative goes to interview. How to meet people. Practice with class members. Each group writes report to be presented by chairman to class. (4) Education
Invite in local educational leaders, or those interested in particular fields of education, to talk to class. Before visitors come, set up with class questions for discussion. (5) Make oral or written reports on the history and control of various communicable diseases. Books to be
166

made and taken home-using the class reports as subject matter. Reports outlined. "New Language Goals", p. 242-245 Any errors of English to be corrected before copying into book. Errors found to be used as basis for technical language drill. (b) Further reports may be made and included in the
above mentioned book. (c) Make investigation in form of questionaire pre-
pared by class and teacher to find out some of the health needs of the community. Through plays, programs at parent-teacher groups, call attention to better standards of living at home. (6) Make reports on trip to visit various centers of transportation and communication. (a) Practice on this trip all safety rules and note the various safety devices in connection with transportation and communication. In a rural situation it would be most worthwhile to go to a telephone and let each member of the group talk over the telephone. (7) Reports on opportunities offered. Write invitations to speakers. (8) Class discussion: "Builders of Our County, How We Can Help"
PART IV
A. Ante Bellum Georgia 1. Write short dramatizations of plantation life and present to some other class or to parents. 2. Write sketch of educational opportunities of this time. 4. Oral reports a. Steamboat, Savannah b. Anesthesia (1) Crawford W. Long Errors in language usage, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure or capitalization to be used as basis for drill lessons in technical English. Use "New Language Goals" as basis. 6. Let each child choose one of the leaders he would like to represent and write a biographical sketch or narrative sketch telling of the part he played in this period of history
167

-class, "guess who?" "New Language Goals", p. 186.

-~ ..,.-2..:

Study of pronouns might follow here. "New Language

Goals", p. 16-81, 119-121

PART V
A. Georgia Today
1. Oral and written reports
Set up standards for making reports. "New Language Goals", p. 234
Use common errors in English usage. Punctuation enunciation, pronunciation as basis for language drill lessons. Use English texts as guide. Keep list of misspelled words for dictionary and spelling drill. (The above suggestion may be followed through topics 2,3,4.)
3. Review experiences and share information gained on trips to various centers of industry.
5. Writing business letters "New Language Goals," p. 212
Spelling and dictionary drill of words needed to write letter to Georgia Power Company for information.
Word Study-"New Language Goals," p. 217-218 Reports: From committee that visited Georgia Power Company and the committee that interviewed the county agent in regard to TVA.
6. Transportation and communication Narrative reports about trips to various transportation and communication centers "New Language Goals", p. 186 Write article for school newspaper on the "Influence of Modern Means of Transportation on Industry."
7. Educational opportunities Write letters requesting bulletins and other informational material to various colleges in the state. "New Language Goals," p. 199-203 Common errors found in written work to form basis for technical English lessons Spelling and dictionary drill "New Language Goals," p. 216 Study of terminology found in these readings
8. Class discussions Making complete sentences "New Language Goals," p. 90-98

168

Describing things of interest seen on trips to museums,

. etc.

----2.:

"New Language Goals," p. 189

Study of adjectives

"New Language Goals," p. 31-35, 36, 155

9. Health problems in Georgia

a. Expository paragraphs

"New Language Goals," p. 192-193,194

Explain to class proper care of person-eyes, hair,

teeth, body, etc.

Use errors in spoken English as a basis for correct

usage drill.

b. Descriptive paragraphs

"New Language Goals," p. 189

Describe places visited and healthful living conditions

found there.

c. Make oral or written reports, using health texts as

reference.

10. Oral or written reports on topics selected by the children

chosen from readings on the subject of recreational

health.

"New Language Goals," p. 173-244

"New Language Goals," p. 5-8

11. Children often enjoy memorizing poems that appeal to

them. They should be encouraged to do such memory

work.

Write to State Department of Health, Atlanta, Georgia,

for large chart showing period of incubation, symptoms

and means of prevention.

12. Dictionary study

Use dictionary for a better understanding of the termin-

ology used by these authors.

Memorize any selection or part of a poem that is of

interest to the individual.

Encourage creative writing, both poetry and prose.

13. State government

Set up class organization.

Elect president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer.

Let class recognize classroom problems and help in solv-

ing them.

Hold meetings and assume responsibilities connected with

the classroom and campus activities.

FINE ARTS Text: Wynn, Readings in Georgia Literature

169

PART I
__2;A. Georgia as a Colony
1. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 33, 219,46-47 2. First Lessons in Georgia History, p. 20-27, 251, 101
Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 181-183, "230, 244, 340 Draw picture of Cherokee rose. 3. a. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 33 b. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 36 c. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 254, 219 d. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 188-189 (2) Music - Song, "Jesus Lover of My Soul," by
Charles Wesley 4. Georgia as an English province
c. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 121 Picture Study-"Appeal to the Great Spirit"
5. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 54 Begin frieze telling in pictures the story of Georgia.
PART II
A. Revolution
Story of the Flag The Growth of a Nation, p. 177 Draw picture of first flag. Music: "Mr. Frog Went A-Courting"
(old colonial song) Music: "Listen to the Mockingbird"
"Bird Calls" from "Music Hour"-Book V Poems and stories related to science study may be included here. Readings in Georgia Literature,
"The Martin's Song," p. 244 "The Brown Thrasher," p. 319 "The Song and the Singer," p. 151 "A Band of Bluebirds," p. 150 "A Meadow Song," p. 149 "Song," p. 213
PART III
A. Georgia Becomes a State
Music: "Georgia" by Robert Loveman in Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 215 and "Georgia Land," p. 157
170

Related selections in Readings in Georgia Literature for appreciation and memorization when desired:
"Georgia Night," p. 154 "Georgia Greeting," p. 157 "Georgia, My Georgia," p. 271 "Georgia's Wonders," p. 292 Music (4) Georgia school song Drawing maps and charts Art fundamentals
a. Proportion b. Arrangement c. Lettering (5) Draw charts showing life history of various insects causing the spread of certain diseases as: fly, mosquito. If possible observe certain germs on slides under microscope and draw enlarged pictures, to be used for class explanations. (b) Compile these reports into a booklet; make decorations and illustrations. Art fundamentals a. Line b. Color c. Proportion d. Book binding e. Conventional designing (c) Directions and guidance in making posters and charts Arrangement Proportion Selection of material to be used (7) Spiritual and aesthetic opportunities in the county a. Beautifying churches, public buildings and
parks Our part in keeping them beautiful Arrangement of flowers How to hang pictures Arrangement of furniture
PART IV
A. Ante Bellum Georgia
1. Plantation life a. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 262, 260, 294 b. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 49
171

Songs: Negro spirituals

Learn to dance the Virginia Reel.

-c--.:t.:

c. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 89, 122, 136, 314

("Omens"), 217

Song: "Massa's in the Cold, Cold Ground."

2. Education

Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 168-181, 315, 318

3. Draw pictures of means of transportation at this time.

4. Scientific development

a. Model of Savannah may be made, or drawing of the

ship as a part of the frieze telling the story of Georgia.

b. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 260

5. Songs that might be taught at this time:

Music: "Dixie," "Tenting Tonight," "Old Black Joe,"

"Swanee River," "Battle Hymn of the Republic"

6. Georgia's part in the War Between the States

Leaders:

c. Readings in Georgia Literatur'e, p. 25

d. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 155

e. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 267, 106, 119

Readings related to this period of Georgia history

Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 29, 48, 232, 256, 299,

294, 265, 271-272

B. Georgia Back in the Union

Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 53 ("Memorial

Day")

Music-"Georgia," p. 215

Music-"Georgia Land," p. 157

3. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 120-121, 99-102

PART V
A. Georgia Today
1. Draw maps. Through the use of various colors indicate counties or section ranking highest in the production of various farm crops.
2. Forests Music: "Trees" by Joyce Kilmer Readings in Georgia Literature, "There Was a Little Path," p. 166 and "Ballad of Trees and the Master," p. 199
5. Electrical power Make charts showing many uses of electrical power.
6. Transportation and communication

172

Make booklet showing forms of transportation found in Georgia today. Include the best of these papers in the above booklet. 7. Educational opportunities Drawing and coloring maps Related readings from Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 162 "My Library"; "Augustus B. Longstreet," p. 214, 318 Each day should provide opportunity for free or recreational reading. Music: "School Days" "Music Hour"-One Book Course
"On the Way to School," p. 1 "My Geography" 8. Opportunities for spiritual and aesthetic development Related readings: Readings in Georgia Literature, "A Great Celebration," p. 31 "Toleration," p. 24 "A Cup Qf Tea," p. 116 "The Blacksmith of the Mountain Pass," p. 191 "I Am Ready," p. 248 "The Bible," p. 257 "Menu for the Day," p. 291 "This World," p. 288 "My Life is Like the Summer Rose," p. 314 "Somewhere," p. 24 "Living," p. 3 "Apology," p. 199 "Fruition," p. 161 9. Health problems in Georgia a. Make posters to promote better personal grooming. Art fundamentals to be developed (1) Proportion (2) Line (3) Color (4) Arrangement (5) Lettering
(a) By pen (b) Freehand cutting c. Make drawings showing life history of various harmful insects as: fly, mosquito, roach, rats, ants, bed bugs; also means of control. 10. Make maps, locating health and recreational centers. Readings: Readings in Georgia Literature,
173

"Sapelo," p. 219; "Down at the Wharf," p. 216;

-~

"Fortune," p. 300; "Fair Milledgeville," p. 55; "The

Boy-and-Horse Race," p. 226; "Open House," p. 5-8

Appreciation of home and family

Readings in Georgia Literature,

"My Little Grandson," p. 313

"The Stranger," p. 218

"My Little Green Cottage," p. 287

"The Red Old Hills of Georgia," p. 164

"The Sweetest Song," p. 246

12. Georgia writers

a. Sidney Lanier

Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 199-211, 35, 223,

324,338,69

b. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 215-216

c. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 245, 246, 247

d. "Keep A-Goin'," p. 277

"Mighty Lak a Rose," p. 276

"St. Michael's Bells," p. 277

"Grave Yard Rabbit," p. 278

e. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 64-89

f. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 132-148

g. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 164

h. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 235-238

i. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 269

j. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 272

13. Readings in Georgia Literature, p. 72-89, 11-20, 307

SCIENCE AND HEALTH
Texts: Brownland and Ireland, Progress in Living Burkard and Others, Personal and Public Health Chapman and Sheffer, Pleasant and Profitable Farming Craig and Condray, Learning About Our World Patch and Howe, Science at Home Patch and Howe, Work of Scientists Turner and Collins, Community Health Wood and Others, How We Live Wynn, Readings in Georgia Literature
A. Study of the local environment
I. Wild flowers and plants Make a field trip. Collect flowers, plants, leaves. Put in leaf press and later mount. References to aid in identifying flowers, plants and trees: Wild Flowers by House, Macmillan Company

174

Lea1'ning About Our World, p. 239-283, 3-16 Write to Division of Forestry, State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia, for Common Forest Trees of Georgia.
II. Selections that relate to the world about us
Readings in Georgia Literature, "The Acorn," p. 111; "Spring," p. 118; "Will and I," p. 148; "Song," p. 213; "Suppose," p. 231; "Georgia's Wonders," p. 292; "Treasure," p. 304-305; "Autumn's Bright House," p. 310 Work of Scientists, p. 191-212 Learning About Our World, p. 5-16

III. Georgia birds

Swallow

Brown thrasher

Sparrow

Bluebird

Wood thrush

Cardinal

Oriole

Wren

Partridge

Hawk

Whippoorwill

Mockingbird

Make field trips and identify birds.

Reference bird books bought at "ten cent store"

Learning About Our World, p. 17-44

Music: "Listen to the Mockingbird"

Bird calls

Related readings:

Readings in Georgia Literature,

"The Martin's Song," p. 244

"The Brown Thrasher," p. 319

"The Song and the Singer," p. 151

"A Band of Bluebirds," p. 150

"A Meadow Song," p. 149

"Song," p. 213

IV. Insect and animal life
1. Make collection of insects, bees, moths, butterflies,
beetles, .etc. Identify and classify them. Harmful insects as, flies, ants, roaches, mosquitos, etc. References: Work of Scientists, p. 137-190 Learning About Our World, p. 343-375 Related Readings in Georgia Literature,
"The Stranger," p. 218 "Blue-eyed Ailey Daisy," p. 259 "Song of the July-fly," p. 22

176

2. Animal life about us

Field trip to discover homes and haunts of wild

-:::--"-.1...:

animals.

List animals native to Georgia.

Class: Flies useful to mankind; flies harmful to man-

kind. Find out about their habits and kind of food

they eat.

References:

Craig, Learning About Our World, p. 44,38,311

Comstock, Handbook of Nature Study

Patch and Howe, Work of Scientists, p. 165

Readings in Georgia Literature,

"Giving a Dog Away," p. 259

3. Conservation of wild life

County health problems (5)

(a) Communicable diseases; control

Write to State Department of Health, Atlanta,

for information on control of communicable

diseases.

Turner and Collins, Community Health, p. 56, 92,

110,121,155,116,119,99,112,100,118,152,52,

223, 121, 131, 151-153

Burkard, Chambers and Maroney, Personal and

Public Health, p. 240, 246-254, 242, 248, 163,

164,209

Other health texts adopted by state will give

similar help as that listed above.

Write to United States Public Health Service,

Washington, D. C.

Consult county health officer.

Use all aids offered by state and county health

departments.

Write to Metropolitan Life Insurance Company,

New York, for all health teaching aids.

(b) Community Health, p. 122, 157, 93, 50, 90, 78,

79,81,88,89

Consult county engineer.

Invite him to visit class and give a talk.

Community Health, p. 28, 30, 26, 29, 24, 42, 32,

27,31,36,34,28,107,95

Science at Home, p. 133-156, 178-208

(7) Choose some project-campus, church or just a

small flower garden on campus that class might

beautify and have the pleasure of seeing improve

through their efforts.

176

Use as many native shrubs, flowers and

trees as possible.

----~

Make classroom a more beautiful place in

which to live.

PART IV
(See "Outline for Study of Georgia," p. 156.)
Study of climate and weather conditions; their influence on the way we live in Georgia
References:
Dodge and Lackey, Georgia Supplement, Advanced Geography, p.12-14
Patch and Howe, Work of Scientists, p. 29-61 Craig and Condroy, Learning About Our World, p. 95-108
Related readings Readings in Georgia Literature, "A Scientific Event," p. 96 "The Rain Song," p. 215 "Tornadoes," p. 229 "Noah and the Ark," p. 66 "Lines for Summer," p. 154 "Georgia Night," p. 154
Activities 1. Watch for weather report in daily paper. Note number of times report is correct. 2. Learn symbols used on weather maps. a. Subscribe for the daily weather map for one month. Address: United States Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. (free). Learn to read a weather map. Find out where the weather station nearest your home is located. 3. Learn to read thermometer. 4. Make a simple barometer. 5. How does Georgia's climate 'influence our way of living?
6. Does altitude influence c1imate and production?

PART V
(See "Outline for Study of Georgia," p. 157.)
1. Making maps "The Work of the Map Makers" Work of Scientists, p. 63
177

a. Learn to read a map accurately.

Cotton

-<t.;

Science at Home, p. 267

Pleasant and Profitable Farming, p. 68-83

Pleasant and P1ofitable Farming,

Corn, p. 74-100

Tobacco, p. 115-120

Peaches, p. 264

Peanuts, p. 109

Pecans, p. 264

Fruits (other), p. 256

Livestock, dairying and poultry, p. 20, 152, 203, 286,

228,223,232,164

2. Forests

Pleasant and Profitable Farming, p. 281-287

Common Forest Trees of Georgia

Write to Division of Forestry and Geological Devel-

opment, State Capitol.

Make field trip and identify trees.

Make leaf prints. Science at Home, rayon, p. 231

Making silk from Georgia pine

Making paper from Georgia pine

Write to Savannah Chamber of Commerce concern-

ing information about Dr. Herty and manufacture of

rayon and paper.

c. Forest conservation (The Forestry Primer)

4. Mines and quarries

Work of Scientists, p. 3-27

5. Electrical power

Learning About Our World, p. 111-142

a. Make electromagnet with dry cells.

b. Make a compass.

d. Why isn't frictional electricity widely used?

e. Use of water power to generate electricity.

6. Transportation and communication

Work of Scientists, p. 381, 342, 429-445

8. Opportunities for spiritual and aesthetic development

a. How We Live, p. 271-299

9. Health problems in Georgia

(1) Personal and. Public Health, p. 9-29, 29-75,

75-135, 151, 170,256

a. How We Live, p. 1-252

Community Health, p. 211, 108

178

b. Community Health, p. 11, 24, 77, 94, 126, 197

--- '~2....-

Progress in Living, p. 2-131, 134-155, 156-181

c. Progress in Living, p. 75-93

Community Health, p. 97

10. Health and recreation

Health texts: Personal and Public Health, p. 29-75 Progress in Living, p. 182-227

Community Health, p. 148-160, 184, 187, 189, 194

State Department of Health, State Capitol, Atlanta.

How does this department serve the state?

What is the Ellis Health Law? Does it operate in your county?

179

j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j

-----~
SUBJECT INDEX TO GEORGIA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS
Prepared by Methods and Materials Classes, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia,
1937-38

PREFACE
In line with the Georgia Program for the Improvement of Instruction the Methods and Materials classes of West Georgia College have compiled a subject index to the state textbooks. This index should be valuable to teachers in planning integrated units dealing with persistent problems of living. While this index ie not exhaustive it does reveal the vast amount of rich material within the pages of our state textbooks.
Katie Downs, Director of Teacher Training

SUBJECT INDEX TO STATE TEXTBOOKS*
-----~

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

Accidents

The AccidenL

Prose and Poetry, VL______________ 441

The Fire Loss of Our Country__Whys and Wherefores, V

195

The Science of Prevention Cleanliness and Health______________ 149

Knowledge Is Protection

Progress in Living

101

The Doctor Comes in the

Night

Wide Windows

30

Safety and First Aid

Personal and Public Health,

VII

281

How to Avoid Accidents A Forest Fire Helping Others
An Automobile Accident The Rescue
Fire! Fire! Fire Engine

Building for Health, V

266

Child-Story Reader, V______________ 64

Healthy Living, VL

185

Now We Are Growing

132

New Stories, IL________________________ 110

The Work-Play Books, Primer 39

Good Friends

70

Safe and Sane Use of

Highways

1

Animals-Domestic

The Run-Away Puppy

Jane's Pony

Ruth and Tabby

Joe and Wag

Tiger and Wag

The Scotties

Pat and the Rope

The Pony Ride

Spot and the Doll

The Cows

Little Pig

Little Brown Dog

Little White Kitten

Puff

"

Wag Gets Lost

Puff Is Sleepy "

The Goat

The Dog That Lied

Webster Readers, L__________________ 84

Webster Readers, Primer________ 65

Everyday Life, Primer____________ 1

Everyday Life, Primer____________ 4

Everyday Life, Primer____________ 22

Everyday Life, Primer___________ 29

Everyday Life, Primer____________ 52

J o-Boy ------------ --------_____________ 34

J o-Boy

8

J o-Boy -____________________________________ 95

J o-Boy

105

Wag and Puff___________________________ 1

Wag and Puff____________________________ 7

Wag and Puff

8

Wag and Puff____________________________ 16

Wag and Puff____________________________ 21

TheWork-Play Books, Primer 57

Pioneer Trails, Book VIL 426

*Main divisions of the subject index are arranged alphabetically.

183

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--2,; The Cat That Came Back- Fact and Story Readers,

Book V

110

A Boy and His Dog The Horse Black Beauty Ben, The Faithful Dog A Puppy Joins the Family
Chinook, A Famous Dog Woof's Visit to Poor PoIL My Dog

Prose and Poetry, Book VIL__ 510 Prose and Poetry, Book VIL__ 530 Literary Selections, Book VIL 263 Child-Story Readers, VL________ 26 Now We Are Growing______________ 25
The Wonder World, Book IIL__ 120 The Wonder World, Book IIL__ 127 Child-Story Readers, Book V__ 84

Dinah, The Silly Calf Grandfather's Prize Pig
The Dog That Flew Over the North Pole

Child-Story Readers, Book IV 13 Child-Story Readers, Book IV 28
Child-Story Readers, Book IV 52

The Cats Have Come to Tea Child-Story Readers, Book IV 114

Coco, The GoaL

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 17

Rover, The Farmer's Helper Webster Readers, IIL______________ 26 The Dog That Came Back- Webster Readers, IIL______________ 134

George Washington and the

Colt

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 171

Marjorie, The Wise Donkey Webster Readers, IIL______________ 1

The Story of the Contented

Ox

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 237

Tiny White Kitten Puppy Bingo The Watch Dog My Dog Chores First The Milkman

My Health Habits, Book L______ 11 The Work-Play Books, IL______ 4 The Work-Play Books, IL______ 59 The Work-Play Books, IL______ 188 New Stories, Book IL______________ 22 N ew Stories, Book IL______________ 69

Kittens-Topsy Stays a Kitten

Work-Play Books, Book L______ 69

How to Take Care of a CaL Work-Play Books, Book L______ 98

Do You Like Dogs?

Work-Play Books, Book L 101

Don, A Collie Dog

Work-Play Books, Book L 103

Little Duck Says Quack

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

60

The Boy and His Goats

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

86

The Little Rooster

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

82

Mother Pig's Joke

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

70

Why Puff Had No Home Surprise Stories

4

184

Title of Story
-ltbw Tom Earned His Calf Safety First for Your Dog J ip and Kitty Making Jane Wake Up A Ride and a Run An Agreeable Little Pig The Kitten's Bath
How to Take Care of Pets: The Dog The Kitten The Pony
Why Wag Had No Home At the Farm Billy's Pets Mother Cow and Her CaIL Puppy Bingo The Watch Dog My Dog Kittens -Do You Like Dogs L Don, A Collie DogHow to Take Care of a Dog The Shepherd Dog of the
Pyrenees Good Dog PrinceThe Stowaway Cat Mew - Mew---Alice and the Cat Can You Draw a CatL A Dog and a BoyBlackie and Whitie The Purple Cow Little Turtle --------The Pony ExpreBs_c On a Sheep Ranch The Hunter and the Rabbit
The Greedy Cat
Cat ---
Mouse

Name of Book

Page

Fact and Story Readers, I1L__ 119

Fact and Story Readers, I1L__ 239

Webster Readers, Primer

20

Webster Readers, Primer

78

Webster Readers, Primer

52

Fact and Story Readers, 1L___ 42

Fact and Story, I1______________________ 54

Fact and Story, I1

132

Fact and Story, 1L

134

Fact and Story, 1L

135

Surprise Stories

10

Friends About Us______________________ 95

Bob and Judy

121

Webster Readers, L__________________ 61 The Work-Play Books, 1L_______ 4

The Work-Play Books, I1__________ 59 The Work-Play Books, I1__________ 188

Work-Play Books, Book L________ 69

Work-Play Books, Book L

101

Work-Play Books, Book L

103

Work-Play Books, Book L

127

Friendly Hour, V

421

Friendly Hour, I1L__________________ 7

Friendly Hour, VL--_______________ 11

Friends at Play

14

Friends at Play_________________________ 18

Friends at Play

25

Friends at Play__________________________ 28

Friends at Play__________________________ 36

1ndoors and Out, Book 1L

175

lndoors and Out, Book IL

172

Winning Our Way, VL____________ 46

Trails of Adventure

102

The Work-Play Books,

Book III

41

The Work-Play Books,

Book III

83

The Work-Play Books,

Book III

105

The Work-Play Books,

Book III

107

185

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-<"t.: Ting Ping and the Very

Black Kitty

The Work-Play Books,

Book III

145

Little Dog Toby in London The Work-Play Books,

Book III

197

From Sheep to Shop

New Paths

219

Too Much Horse

N ew Paths

317

Happy

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer________ 7

Happy Runs Away

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer________ 14

Nancy and the Basket
Spot and the Red BaIL Billy Helps Nancy

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer________ 18

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer________ 22

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer

26

Ned and Grandmother Dark Pony

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer________ 31 _Elson-Gray Basic, Primer 134

How Ethan Found a PeL The Kitten and the Dog Grandmother's Path

Elson-Gray Readers, IIL________ 55 Faet and Story, L______________________ 21 Yact and Story, L______________________ 54

The Camel and the Pig The Three Pigs

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 98 Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 114

Little Pig and His Garden Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 144

The Animals That Found a

Home

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 170

Abraham Lincoln and His

Dog

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 194

The Halloween Cat

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 213

The Story of the Easter Rabbit

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 230

Igloo, A Clever Fox Terrier Trails Beyond

75

Animals-Wild

Little Rabbit
Four Rabbits The Toy Elephant

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Primer

71

Jo-Boy

68

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

7

Bunny Plays a Trick-

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

35

Little Bear and the Honey Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

49

The Circus Elephant Paddy Bear

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

54

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

113

186

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-A28tory About Gray SquirreLWebster Readers, Book L______ 10

Mother Tiger and Her Baby

Kittens

Webster Readers, Book L______ 59

Mother Lion and Her Babies__Webster Readers, Book L______ 60

Mother Frog and Her Babies__Webster Readers, Book L_____ 65

Mother Elephant and Her

Baby Calf

Webster Readers, Book L______ 66

At the Zoo

Everyday Life, Book L

123

The Animals Kitchen Bears and Elephants Feeding the Seals

Everyday Life, Book L

135

Everyday Life, Book L

139

Everyday Life, Book L

147

The Elephants and the

Water Hole

New Friends, Book lL

103

Peray, The SquirreL

New Friends, Book lL

124

The Zoo

New Stories, Book lL

118

Buddy Beaver

New Stories, Book lL______________ 149

Ursa Minor

New Stories, Book lL

187

A Bear, A Bear

Good Friends, Book lL____________ 33

The Greedy Bear

Happy Hour Readers, Book lL 152

Big Black Bear

Happy Hour Readers, Book lL 163

Grumpy Learns

Happy Hour Readers, Book lL 164

Tony, The Circus Bear

Webster Readers, Book 11________ 1

The Funny Travels of a Fox Webster Readers, Book lL______ 32

The Monkey and Spectacles Webster Readers, Book II 162

The Frog and the Hen

Webster Readers, Book lL______ 165

The Hare and the Frogs

Webster Readers, Book lL______ 183

The Rabbit and the Turtle Webster Readers, Book II________ 208

A Bear, A Boy and the Honey__Webster Readers, Book lL 214

The Baby Deer

Webster Readers, Book lL 218

The Bears Picnic

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book II

61

The Rabbit Who Wanted

Wings

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book II

81

The Camel and the Pig
The Brown Bears The Red SquirreL The Turtle The Zoo Camels from Bagdad Humphrey, The Box Turtle Paddlefoot, The Beaver

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book II

98

Good Times Together________________ 44

Good Times Together

51

Good Times Together_______________ 53

Good Times Together

114

Wide Windows, Book IIL________ 55

Wide Windows, Book IIL 117

Wide Windows, Book IIL 158

187

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-<L How Tort Learned to Swim Wide Windows, Book III

2'53

The Bears and the TrolleyCarWide Windows, Book IIL 260

The Tiger with a Knot in

His Tail

Wide Windows, Book IIL________274

Kit Carson and the Bears Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 12

The Fox and the Lobster

Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 38

The Hedgehog and the Hare Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 41

The Frog's Saddle Horse Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 83

How Patrick Opossum Changed

Webster Readers, Book IIL 108

A Bear Fisherman

Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 120

The Reindeer of the Far North

Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 124

How the Fox Fooled the Dogs__ Webster Readers, Book IIL____ 126

The Bear and His CoaL

Work-Play, Book IIL_____________ 2

Bears

Work-Play, Book IIL______________ 3

Jimmy, A Black Bear Cub Work-Play, Book IIL______________ 8

Wahb, The Grizzly

Work-Play, Book IIL______________ 23

The Story of a Pet Bear Tadpoles

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 26 Fact and Story Readers, III___ 60

A Visit to the Squirrel Nursery

Fact and Story, Book IIL________ 64

Safety First for Rabbits Little Snail

Fact and Story, Book IIL________ 69 Fact and Story, Book IIL________ 71

Little Bear and His Sister Fact and Story, Book IIL________ 72

How Fire Came to the Indians

Fact and Story, Book IIL__.______ 82

The Great Sky Bear

Fact and Story, Book IIL_______ 89

King Lion and the Rabbits Fact and Story, Book IIL 140

The Elephant and the Monkey

Fact and Story, Book IIL 146

The Pretending Woodchuck Fact and Story, Book IIL 148

The Beaver Dam

Neighbors and Helpers, III_____ 21

The Rabbit Hunt

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 277

Mrs. Kangaroo's Secret

The Wonder World, IIL_________ 26

Raising Tadpoles

The Wonder World, Book IIL__ 53

Animals of Long Ago The Bear Book

Facts and Fancies, Book IV 299 Facts and Fancies, Book IV 329

Simba Goes Lion Hunting

with the Cameraman Fact and Story, Book V

130

The Fox in the WeIL

Fact and Story, Book V

302

The Polar Bear and Her Cub Fact and Story, Book V

320

Gopher Snakes and Their Eggs ------

J oyful Adventures, Book IV 108

188

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--~he Moving of the Frogs Elephants in Their Wild State
The Fastidious Serpent Camels Polar Bear The Camels Hunt
The Wonderful Weaver Bruno, The Bear The Greedy Wolf
Little Joe Otter's Slippery Slide
Story of a Beaver Wild Boar Hunting Ab Kills a Hyena A Wise Old Elephant
Mr. Monk and Mr. Terrapin The Wild Turkeys
The Elephant and the Dog The Buffalo Dances The Buffalo Hunt
Mr. Monk and King Tumbo The Lion
Circus Animals at Home Baboons Grizzly Bears The Sleepers Awake Skunks ---

Joyful Adventures, Book IV 118

J oyful Adventures, Book IV 132

Joyful Adventures, Book IV 165 Joyful Adventures, Book IV 375

Joyful Adventures, Book IV 380

Prose and Poetry, Book IV______ 83

Prose and Poetry, Book IV 145

Fact and Story, Book IV

182

Fact and Story, Book IV--- 184

Fact and Story, Book IV 187 Fact and Story, Book IV 192 Prose and Poetry, Book VIL__ 517 Fact and Story, Book VII--- 261 Child-Story Readers, Book V____ 13
Child-Story Readers, Book V____ 36 Child-Story Readers, V____________ 42
Child-Story Readers, V____________ 61 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 35 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 40
Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 58 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 113
Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 204 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 209 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 215 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 224 Child-Story Readers, Book IV__ 232

With Army Ants in the Jungle
The Ant HilL The Red Ant ~

Ants
Fact and Story Readers, VIL__ 96 Happy Hour Readers, Book II 92 ~ Fact and Story Readers, IV 175

The New Aquarium The Aquarium

Aquarium
Friends About Us, Book II_______ 48 Friends About Us, Book II________ 33

Cities of Arabia

Arabia Advanced Geography, Book II 380

189

Title of Story
. -c-.2.:Products and People of Arabia
Arabian Desert Homes of Arabia Coast of Arabia

Name of Book

Page

Advanced Geography, Book II 379 Living Geography, Book L 274
Home Life ih Far Away Lands 54 Home Life in Far Away Lands 56

Arbor Day Tree Planting

The School Tree

Work-Play Books, L_______________ 141

The Planting of the Apple

Tree

Fact and Story, Book VL 311

The Planting of the Apple

Tree

Prose and Poetry, Book IV 414

Automobiles
How Man Provides for Transportation
Age of Machinery and Invention
How America Rides Squad Car 65
Tract for Automobiles What Is History?
A Lonesome Merry Christmas
Inventions Cause Many Changes
The Two Automobiles Transportation Big Black Car The Ride
A Ride to Town

Automobiles Wheels and Wings____________________ 56

Everyday Problems in Science 631

The Growth of a Nation

544

Civics and Citizenship

249

Trails Beyond

377

Scouting Through, Book VL__ 194 Scouting Through, Book VL__ 66

Scouting Through, Book VL__ 140

The Story of Our Republic 378

Fact and Story Readers, VIL 240

Pioneer Trails

495

Wag and Puff___________________________ 20

Fact and Story Readers,

Primer

34

J0-Boy

77

Autumn

Fall Comes to the Mountains The Corn Song
The Death of the Flowers
October's Bright Blue Weather
Autumn Fancies

Neighbors and Helpers, I1L 311 Child-Story Readers, VIL 289 Child-Story Readers, VIL______ 43
Child. Story Readers, VIL 110 Scouting Through, VL____________ 192

190

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--The First Thanksgiving Day_Prose and Poetry, V

182

The Corn Song

Prose and Poetry, V

270

The Fate of the Harvest

Belle

Treasure Chests, V

224

The Halloween CaL

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, IL 213

Little Jack Pumpkin Face Webster Readers, IIL

107

The Master of the Harvest Prose and Poetry, VL______________ 87

Autumn's Mirth

Prose and Poetry, VL

531

October in Tennessee

Prose and Poetry, VL

533

October Colors

Fact and Story Readers, VIL__ 47

Aviation

The Airport The Airplane Ride The Earliest Airplanes Wilbur and Orville Wright The Airplane
The Airplane ------
In the Air, The Airplane A Hero of Flight
Flying Over the North Pole An Airplane Ride

GoodTimes Together, L

126

Good Times Together, L

129

Wonder World, IIL

247

Wonder World, IIL

249

Wonder World, IIL_________________ 254

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 132

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 134

Fact and Story Readers, VL__ 24

Fact and Story Readers, V 165

Friends About Us, IL

173

Bacteria

Bacteriology -----Bacteria -------

Healthy Living, VL

140

Helpful Living, V_____________________ 67

How the Body Fights

Bacteria

Helpful Living, V

199

Bacteria

Keeping Fit

13

Bacteria and Where They Grow
Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria Germs

Everyday Living, IV

185

Health by Doing, IV__________________ 13

Healthy Living, VL__________________ 6

Keeping Well

92

Building for Health, V

128

How Germs Are Spread

Building for Health, Y___________ 130

Preventing Spread of Germs__ Building for Health, V

131

How Do Germs Affect the Body?
Control of Bacteria Destruction of Bacteria Discovery of Bacteria Bacteria

Science in Living, VL

182

Science in Living, VL

188

Science in Living, V

189

Science in Living, VL______________ 20

The Body and Health, VL______ 57

191

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--2,.:

Bible Stories

David, The Shepherd Lad Destruction of Sannacherib A Song of Solomon Moses, The Lawgiver The Story of Joseph The Story of David
The Twenty-Third Psalm
Joseph, The Ruler David, The Singer

The Friendly Hour, V

260

Prose and Poetry, VL

493

Child-Story Readers, VL 115

Child-Story Readers, VL 419

Prose and Poetry, V________________ 80

Prose and Poetry, V

432

Prose and Poetry, V

437

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, III 271

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, III 282

Birds

The Little Christmas Tree Elson-Gray, Primer

100

Dan and the Birds

Everyday Life, Primer___________ 36

The Baby Birds

Webster Readers, Primer

68

The Little Apple Tree Making a Nest

Wag and Puff, Primer____________ 76

Wag and Puff, Primer

80

A Surprise for Billy

Wag and Puff, Primer____________ 87

A Surprise for AIL

Wag and Puff, Primer____________ 90

Baby Robins First Bath

Wag and Puff, Primer____________ 94

The Bluejay Tree

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

44

Carlo the Big Bird

Elson-Gray Basic Readers,

Book I

65

The Bird House

Happy Hour Readers, Book L 101

In the Nest

Happy Hour Readers, Book L 104

Story About the Birds

Webster Readers, Book L________ 11

A Nest of Birds

Good Times Together, Book L 48

Polly Plays Tag

Webster Readers, Book IL______ 82

New Friends

Webster Readers, Book IL______ 88

The Woodpecker's Bank

Elson-Gray Readers, Book IL 48

How the Wren Family Moved__Elson-Gray Readers, Book IL 53

A Bird Housa

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 219

Bird Homes

The Find Out Book, IL____________ 6

The Wren House

The Friendly Hour, L______________ 78

A Lone Eagle's Flight

The Friendly Hour, IV

142

Birds as Travelers

The Friendly Hour, V

398

Birds of the Antarctic

The Friendly Hour, V

410

Friends of the Treetops

The Friendly Hour, IIL

199

The Night Bird Birds

Fact and Story Readers, IV____ 91 Fact and Story Readers, IV 209

The Bird HOlllse

Happy Hour Readers, L

101

192

Title of Story

Narne of Book

Page

-The Bluebird

c The Work-Play Books, L__________ 132

The Robins' Nest

The Work-Play Books, L

133

Carrier Pigeon

Reading to Learn, L________________ 245

The Swallow Learns a Lesson__ Elson-Gray Basic Readers, III 63

In the Nest

Happy Hour Readers, L__________ 104

Don and the Birds

Everyday Life, Primer

36

The Baby Birds

Webster Readers, Primer

68

The Stork's Nest

Happy Hour Readers, IIL______ 73

The Woodpecker

Happy Hour Readers, IIL______ 148

Boats and Canoes

Old Ironsides
Treasure Island The Skeleton in Armor The Revenge Kilomeny

Prose and Poetry, VIL

287

Prose and Poetry, VIL____________ 3

Prose and Poetry, VIL

185

Prose and Poetry, VIL

209

Prose and Poetry, VIL-

217

Ballard of the Boston Tea

Party

Prose and Poetry, VII

300

A Boat for You

Jo-Boy

28

The Big BoaL

Good Times Together, L

132

Hans and the Four Great Giants
Finding a New World J an's Home River Boat Homes The First BoaL Indian Canoes
A City on the Ocean
The Adventures of a Sailor The Arctic Twins
Life and Work in the Colonies
The Wireless Wizard
Heroes of the Dots and Dashes
Columbus
The Coming of the Pilgrims On Water, The Ship Sea Fever

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, III 121

Work-Play Books, IIL

111

Work-Play Books, IIL

163

Child-Story Readers, IV

t38

Child-Story Readers, IV__________ 150

Child-Story Readers, IV

161

Child-Story Readers, IV

199

Child-Story Readers, VL________ 62

Child-Story Readers, VL________ 97

Child-Story Readers, IV

264

Child-Story Readers, VL 398

Child-Story Readers, VL 442 Child-Story Readers, VIL________ 36
Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 102 Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 130 Fact and Story Readers, V______ 38

Michel and His Uncle Ives

of Brittany

Fact and Story Readers, V______ 40

Robert Fulton and the Steamboat

Fact and Story Readers, VL__ 17

193

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-::;--.,-2..:- Sailing the South Seas

.Fact and Story Readers, VL__ 113

Marooned on an Island of Ice_. Fact and Story Readers, VL__ 159

Spanish Waters

Fact and Story Readers, VL__ 176

The Silver Horde

.Fact and Story Readers, VL 203

Trapped by the Wire

Fact and Story Readers, VII 191

David Goes North Again Fact and Story Readers, VIL__ 223

An Old Fisherman

Fact and Story Readers, VII 329

The Lady of ShallotL

Prose and Poetry, VIL

391

The Boat Race

Child-Story Readers, VIL______ 244

Hiawatha's Canoe

Child-Story Readers, VIL 441

The Set of the SaiL

Child-Story Readers, VIL 191

The Ship of State

Child-Story Readers, VIL 372

Old Ironsides ---------

Pioneer Trails, VIL__________________ 1

The Ballard of the Merry Ferry

Pioneer Trails, VIL__________________ 49

Reading a Picture Chart

Pioneer Trails, VIL

492

Transportation -

Pioneer Trails, VIL

499

Shipbuilding in New England

U. S. in the Modern World________ 88

Shipbuilding

Child-Story Readers, VL 219

Freight for Europe

Child-Story Readers, VL 365

The Phoenicians: Early

Traders and Sailors Child-Story Readers, VL________ 333

The Hawaiian Boy Who

Invented Sails

Treasure Chests, V

148

Old Ironsides -

Prose and Poetry, V

138

Columbus Discovers America_Prose and Poetry, V

438

Wreck of the Hesperus

Prose and Poetry, VL

465

My Bed Is a Boat

The Wonder World, IIL

175

A Boat for You

Happy Hour, Primer________________ 28

Aunt Martha's Story

Best Stories, IIL

147

The Big Boat

Good Times Together, L__________ 132

Boats

Wide Windows, IIL__________________ 109

Sailing Ships

Wide Windows, IIL

111

Finding aNew World

The Work-Play Readers, IIL__ 120

Summer and Winter Fun The Work-Play Readers, IIL__ 173

Samuel de Champlain

Whys and Wherefores, V

51

Viking Days of America

Fact and Story Readers, V 370

Columbus and His Son, Diego__ Elson-Gray Readers, IIL

301

Christopher Columbus The Ocean Liner

Elson-Gray Readers, IIL

309

Friends About Us

169

Shipbuilding

Living Across the Sea______________ 80

Shipbuilding

Home Life in Far Away Lands 80

194

Title of Story -Ships
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding in Norway

Name of Book

Page

Geography for Beginners, L __ 117

J ourneys Through N.

America, V

227

Journeys Through Many

Lands, IV

108

Chickens

A Mother Hen
The Little Chickens
The Black Rooster at Home Red Rooster Brown Hen co*ck-A-Doodle-Doo Little White Hen Thirteen Little Chicks Little Chicks Go Away Three Naughty Chicks White Hen

J o-Boy, Primer

92

Peter and Peggy, Primer________ 66

Peter and Peggy, Primer________ 89

Peter and Peggy, Primer

110

Peter and Peggy, Primer 112

Good Friends, L

135

Wag and Puff, Primer

40

Wag and Puff, Primer______________ 59

Wag and Puff, Primer______________ 64

Wag and Puff, Primer______________ 70

Surprise Stories

14

Why White Hen Likes the Farm
Thirteen Chicks Two Chicks Leave the Farm The Little Rooster The Little Red Hen What Was in White Hen's
Nest? Animals
Poultry

Surprise Stories

17

Surprise Stories

22

Surprise Stories

24

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, L__ 82

Elson-Gray Basic Readers, L __ 145

Webster Readers, L----c------------- 72 J ourneys Through N.

America, V

88

Geography for Beginners, L __ 144

Christmas

Christmas Everywhere
Fulfilled, A Legend of Christmas Eve
Christmas in Holland An Old English Christmas Christmas Letters Christmas Verses A Happy Christmas Christmas Presents Christmas, A Poem A Christmas CaroL

Prose and Poetry, Book IV 129

Prose and Poetry, Book VL____ 46

Fact and Story Readers, IL____ 84

Fact and Story Readers, V______ 27

Guide Books for Language, III 64

Guide Books for Language, III 66

Guide Books for Language, III 67

Guide Books for Language, III 80

Webster Readers, L

164

Treasure Chests, Book V

444

195

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-<t.: Christmas Down South Old Christmas CaroL
Which Is Right?

Whys and Wherefores, Book V 313

Work-Play Books, lL ~

116

Work-Play Books, lL______________ 120

Christmas in the Barn Johnny's Plan
Getting Ready

Work-Play Books, lL______________ 121

Work-Play Books, lL

125

Work-Play Books, lL

129

A Fine Time in the Barn Christmas Presents Do You Know?

Work-Play Books, lL

129

Work-Play Books, II________________ 133

Work-Play Books, lL______________ 134

Coasting with Christmas

Sleds

Work-Play Books, lL

135

The Christmas Fairy Gretchen's Surprise Paddy's Christmas

Elson-Gray Readers, L

155

Elson-Gray Readers, IlL

244

Elson-Gray Readers, IlL

251

The Christmas Wishes Holiday Riddles

The Wonder World, IlL__________ 96

The Wonder World

108

Christmas Tree Lights

Good Friends, L

159

A Christmas Song

Webster Readers, lL

104

Two Christmas Presents
The Little Christmas Tree Blue Bicycle

Webster Readers, lL________________ 115

Elson-Gray, Primer

100

J o-Boy, Primer

113

A Happy Christmas

Jo-Boy, Primer

119

The Golden Spider Webs
Wag and Puff's Christmas
An English Christmas Tree Christmas

Elson-Gray Readers, lL

224

Fact and Story Readers, V________ 17

Fact and Story Readers, V________ 87

New Language Goals, IlL________ 214

Writing a Letter to Santa Claus
o Little Town of
Bethlehem

Better English, 3______________________ 50 Better English, 3______________________ 54

Telling about Your Presents Better English, 3______________________ 59

Getting Ready for Christmas__Language Garden

102

A Book About a Zoo The Country Fair The Zoo
The Circus Elephant The Circus Friends The Cinema Dogs The Zoo
The Circus Circus Animals at Home

Circus

Ben and Alice____________________________ 78

Good Times Together, L__________ 97

Good Times Together, L

114

Elson-Gray Readers, L____________ 54

Good Friends, lL______________________ 75

:Surprise Stories

80

New Stories

118

Fact and Fancies, IV________________ 57

Child-Story, IV .

204

19ft

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

- -c~t the Zoo ~---~-------------------- The Road to Health, IL____________ 113

Boy White Plays Circus

Safety Hill of HealthjL__________ 9

Citizenship

America

Child-Story, VII

421

The American Flag

Child-Story, VII

323

England and America in 1702__Child-Story, VII

369

The Fatherland

Child-Story, VII

287

Fear of Death

Child-Story, VII

93

The First America

Child-Story, VII

322

Giving a Pledge to the Flag Citizenship, Middle Grades, L 344

Street Cleaning Club

Citizenship, Middle Grades, L 229

The Flag

Work-Play, III

110

A Good Turn

New Friends, II

119

Little Citizens

New Friends, II________________________ 234

Cleanville The Good American

Citizenship, Middle Grades, L_ 223

Child-Story, VII

346

Greetings to American

Soldiers

Child-Story, VII

368

Liberty Bell

Child-Story, VII

365

Liberty for AlL

Child-Story, VII

321

Love of Country

ChildStory, VII

353

Makers of the Flag

Child-Story, VII

11

My Country

Child-Story, VII

286

The National Flag

Child-Story, VII

425

Patriotism

Child-Story, VII

15

The Ringing of Liberty BeIL__Child-Story, VII

478

The Service Flag

Child-Story, VII

370

Your Mission

Child-Story, VII

256

Civics and Patriotism

Pioneer Trails

1

Good American Citizens

Child-Story, IV

434

America the BeautifuL

Fact and Story Readers, V 331

Good Citizens

Child-Story, VI

442

What Is Cleanliness ? Keeping Clean Clean Homes
Clean Schools Taking Care of the Skin
Habits of Personal Cleanliness

Cleanliness

Cleanliness and Health, VL____ 42

Cleanliness and Health, VL 109

Building for Health, V

200

Building for Health, V

200

HeaJthy Living, V

110

The Body and Health, VL______ 169

197

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--2..:

Climate

The Tropic Forest Regions Scouting Through, V1

227

A Prophet of Health

Scouting Through, VL

420

Rain

J ourneys in Different Lands____ 48

Countries of Subtropical and Temperate America Advanced Geography, 1L 258

Our North American

Neighbors

Living Geography, L

155

The Daily Weather Map

Advanced Geography, L__________ 89

The Average Length of the

Growing Season in the

U. S.

Advanced Geography, L__________ 13

The Climate Belt of the World
Climate Conditions

Advanced Geography, 1L 426

Our World Today

336

Clothes

A Surprise from Aunt Jane Ellen's Story of Silk The Silkworm's RivaL Our Friend the Silkworm A Valuable Plant A Letter to China On Being Well Dressed
Good Health and Clothing Habits
You and Your Wardrobe Needs
Budgets and Clothing Selection __c
Making Your Own Clothes
Keeping Our Clothes Clean
Clothing
Regular Care of Clothes Clothes for the Baby

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 161

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 165

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 173

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 169

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 177

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 181

The New First Course in

Home Making

198

The New First Course in

Home Making

~ 219

The New First Course in

Home Making

235

The New First Course in

Home Making

248

The New First Course in

Home Making

286

The New First Course in

Home Making

301

.The Girl of Today and the

Woman of Tomorrow

25

The Mode in Dress and Home 295

Fabrics and Dress

133

198

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--Ii9w to Look Well in Your

Clothes

Clothes for Girls 87 ~______________

Art and People's Clothing People and Art_________________________ 43

How Can You Know the

Kinds of Fabrics in Your Clothes?

Everyday Problems in Science 295

How Can You Select Proper

Clothing to Protect Your Body?

Everyday Problems in Science 300

How Can Clothes be Properly

Laundered?

Everyday Problems in Science 305

How Are Spots and Stains Re-

moved from Clothing? Everyday Problems in Science 309

Scott English Club Betsy's Sewing Society The Pickwick Club
The Play Club Busy Days on the Farm The Second Meeting

Clubs

Prose and Poetry, VL

586

-Pioneers, IV

314

Child-Story, VII

78

Neighbors and Helpers, IlL__ 55

Friendly Hour, IV

315

~ Friendly Hour, IV

233

Communication

The Wireless Operator The Letter

The Friendly Hour, VL____________ 99

New Stories

1

Tom's Letter

New Stories "___________________________ 14

Communication

Trails Beyond, VL

305

In the Radio Operating Room_ Trails Beyond, VL

391

Tommy Goes West

Wide Windows

8

Betty's Surprise

Wide Windows

46

The Telegraph

Wide Windows

116

Letters from Lucknow

Trails Beyond

264

Telegraph Wires

Trails Beyond

335

Main 3573

Trails Beyond

336

Transoceanic Telephone

Trails Beyond

349

Broadcasting in Radio City Trails Beyond

361

Squad Car 65

Trails Beyond

377

A Tiny Beam of Light

Television

Trails Beyond

384

Making Hand Bills

Friends About Us.___________________ 59

Sending a Telegram ----__._Friends About Us

160

199

!

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-c<t.: Heroes of the Dots and

11
Ii

Dashes ~______

Child-Story Readers, VL

442

tl
.~

The Little Post Boy

Fact and Story, Book V____________ 53

Voices Heard Around the

World

Fact and Story, Book VIL 154

Carrying the Message to

Garcia

Fact and Story, Book VL

361

Paul Revere's Ride

Child-Story-7th Year

356

I See by the Papers Call Me Up

Whys and Wherefores, Book V 386 Whys and Wherefores, Book V 228

The Mail Plane

New Friends, Book IL____________ 9

Joy, The Paper Boy

Everyday Life, Book L__________ 33

How the Radio Helped

Webster Readers, IL________________ 95

How Mail Is Carried

Neighbors and Helpers____________ 61

How News and Information

Comes to Us

.Neighbors and Helpers____________ 123

Movies

The Wonder World, Book III_ 18

Here Comes the Postman In a Letter Box "

The Wonder World, Book IlL 286

J o-Boy

87

The Letter

Peter and Peggy, Primer_______ 49

A Letter from the Farm The School Radio Good News

Peter and Peggy, Primer________ 87

Bob and Judy, Primer

89

Bob and Judy, Primer_____________ 45

The Radio Party A Letter

Bob and Judy, Primer

103

Bob and Judy, Primer

115

A Letter to China

Neighbors and Helpers

181

Trails to Highways

The Friendly Hour, V c______ 92

Couriers of the MaiL

The Friendly Hour, VL__________ 46

Modern Messengers

The Friendly Hour, VL__________ 73

Community Helpers

The School Nurse The Milkman At the Grocery Store Here Comes the Postman The Postman
A Queer Little Postman The Postman The Young Fireman The Milkman A Trip with the Milkman The Iceman
The Painters __

Everyday Life, L__________________ 12

Fact and Story, Primer__________ 38

Everyday Life, Book L

105

Wonder World, IIL________________ 286

Fact and Story, Book IL

104

Fact and Story, Book IL__________ 99

Elson Basic Readers, IL

136

Elson Basic Readers, II____________ 206

New Stories

69

New Stories

75

New Stories

87

Friends About Us____________________ 88

200

Title of Story

Narne of Book

Page

--A,.: City Dairyc The Fire

" Friends About Us____________________ 102 Ftiends About Us____________________ 63

The Fire House

Friends About Us___________________ 67

The Locomotive Engineer Fact and Story Readers, V 139

The Train Dispatcher

Fact and Story Readers, V 149

The Brave Fireman

Fact and Story Readers, IV 287

The Life Saver of Lone HilL__ Fact and Story Readers, IV 291

The Forest Ranger

Fact and Story Readers, IV 299

Police Protection

The Round Up, VIIL

216

Gerry of the Signal Corps The Little Gate Keeper The Filling Station

Whys and Wherefores, Book V 179 Whys and Wherefores, Book V 214 Everyday Life, Preprimer______ 11

Corn
Corn Corn Belt Corn
Corn Corn Belt
Corn Corn in Yugoslavia Corn in Mrica
Corn in EgypL
Corn --------
Corn --------------------
Corn Shucking
The Corn Field Zunie Corn Grinding Song The Corn Song Corn -----The Corn Exhibit Corn ------Corn Belt -------

Corn

Living Across the Seas,

VI

119, 141, 176

Living in the Americas, V__32, 134

Living Geography, L________________ 98

The United States and the

Modern World, VIL__________ 29 Living in Different Lands, IV 54

Home Life in Far-Away

Lands, I

162

Geography for Beginners, L __ 107

Our World Today-Europe 346

Journeys Through Many

Lands, IV

67

Journeys Through Many

Lands

77

J ourneys Through Many

Lands, IV

26, 89

J ourneys Through North

America, Book V

283

First Lessons in Georgia

History, Evans

239

Happy Hour Readers, IIL______ 152

Child-Story Readers, VL 134

Prose and Poetry, V

270

Now We Are Growing______________ 46

Adventures in Living, IIL______ 47

Advanced Geography, VL 278

Advanced Geography, VL 156

Alice and Her Mother

Cows

Elson-Gray Basic, Primer

60

201

Title of Story

-0--2,; Billy's Pets

--'-

The Farmer's Helpers

The Cows

Mother Cow and Her Calf

At the Farm

The Purple Cow

Dinah, The Silly Calf

The Monkey and the Cow

Name of Book

Page

Bob and Judy, Primer

121

Everyday Life, Primer

62

Happy Hour Readers, Primer__ 95

Webster Readers, L__________________ 61

Friends About Us, II________________ 95

Indoors and Out, IL

175

Child-Story Readers, IV__________ 13

The Work-Play Book, L

154

Dairy-Milk-Butter

The Story of Milk Making Butter Milk Milk for City People
Milk for the Dolls Billy Boy and the Milk. A Visit to a Dairy Farm

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 108

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 112

Whys and Wherefores, Book V 108

Good Friends

119

Peter and Peggy, Book L_______ 36

Webster Readers, II__________________ 68

Now We Are Growing______________ 63

Distinguished People

The Wizard of Many Inventions

Pioneer Trails, VII____________________ 345

Lindbergh

Whys and Wherefores, V__________ 1

Boats Take Wings

Joyful Adventures, IV

358

Robert Fulton and the Steamboat

Fact and Story Readers, VL__ 17

The Magic Effect of Machinery

The Story of Our Nation

350

Some Marvels of Modern Life__The Growth of a Nation, VIL__ 715

The Telephone

The Growth of a Nation, VIL__ 557

A Little Lad of Long Ago Elson-Gray Readers, IIL

258

Abraham Lincoln and His

Dog

Elson-Gray Readers, II

194

The Little Cook

Elson-Gray Readers, II

189

Christopher Columbus

Elson-Gray Readers, IIL

309

Columbus and His Son, Diego__ Elson-Gray Readers, IIL________ 301

David, TheSinger

Elson-Gray Readers, IIL

282

Joseph, The Ruler

Elson-Gray Readers, IIL

271

The Wonderful Gardener,

Burbank

Elson-Gray Readers, IIL________ 150

Dogs
Rover, The Farmer's HelpeL__The Webster Readers, IIL______ 26 Little Dog Toby in London The Work-Play Books, IIL______ 197

202

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-OTEe Dog That Lied

Pioneer Trails, VIL_.:____________ 426

The Troublesome Puppy

The Wonder World, 111._______ 86

Chinoak, A Famous Dog

The Wonder World, IIL

120

My Dog

Child-Story Readers, V

84

The Elephant and Dog

Child-Story Readers, V

61

The Dog That Came Back Webster Readers, IIL__________ 134

Ingloo, A Clever Fox Terrier__Trails Beyond, VL_______________ 75

A Smart Dog

Webster Readers, IL_____________ 14

Rover, A Good Brave Dog Webster Readers, 11.___________ 17

Afraid of a Goose

Happy Hour Readers, Primer 99

Where Is J o-Boy L Little Brown Dog Wag

Happy Hour Readers, Primer 17

Child's Own Way, Primer

1

Child's Own Way, Primer________ 2

Wag Gets LosL Bob and Tag

Child's Own Way, Primer_______ 16 Fact and Story Readers,

Betty, Bob and Tag

Preprimer ------_ 5

Fact and Story Readers,

Preprimer

18

Spot and Little Mew

Elson-Gray, Preprimer

15

Something Funny

Elson-Gray, Preprimer

20

Peter and Peggy

Work-Play, Primer

3

Night

Work-Play, Primer

24

Tag and Twinkle

Work-Play, Primer

30

Breakfast

Work-Play, Primer

32

The Birthday

Elson-Gray, Primer

7

Happy Runs Away Billy Helps Nancy Alice and Her Mother Hide and Seek

Elson-Gray, Primer

14

Elson-Gray, Primer

26

Elson-Gray, Primer

60

Webster Readers, L__________________ 27

Playing Indian Jip Goes to SchooL

Webster Readers, L_________________ 34 Webster Readers, L__________________ 45

The Run-Away Puppy Joe and Wag

Webster Readers, L__________________ 84

Everyday Life, Primer

14

The Scotties

~

Pat and the Rope

Jingo's Little Red Cap

Everyday Life, Primer

29

Everyday Life, Primer___________ 52

Work-Play, I

52

Bob and Toby Bunny Boy

Bob and Judy, Primer____________ 3 Elson-Gray Readers, L____________ 13

Little Duck Says Quack
Carlo and the Big Bird Tag

Elson-Gray Readers, L____________ 60
Elson-Gray Readers, L____________ 65 Fact and Story Readers, L______ 52

Bob and Tag

Fact and Story Readers, L______ 86

Going to MarkeL

Fact and Story Readers, L______ 9

203

Title of Story
-<L Tag and Tibby at Play A Smart Dog Rover, A Good Brave Dog How Dandy Got Home The Motion Picture Show White Spot ---Little America -------
Ben, The Faithful Dog---A Story to Name Woof's Visit to Poor PolL A Lonesome Merry
Christmas

Name of Book

Page

Fact and Story Readers, L______ 16 Webster Readers, IL 12 ~________

Webster Readers, IL______________ 17

Elson-Gray Readers, IL__________ 7

Friends About Us, II________________ 71

Friends About Us, IL

111

Pioneers, VI

10

Child-Story Readers, VL________ 26 The Wonder World, IIL_________ 196

The Wonder World, IIL

127

Scouting Through, IV

140

-Electricity

Electricity Is Safe IfThunder and Lightning
Light's Golden J ubilee
The Light for Boys and Girls of Today
Turning Water Power into Electricity
Streams and Electricity Using Water Power

Whys and Wherefores, V 210

Treasure Chests, V

427

Pioneer Trails, VIL

357

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 315

Living in America, V________________ 90
Home Life in Far-Away Lands 127 Living Across the Seas____________ 80

Eskimos

The Home in the Far North__ Friends About Us, IL

225

Alaska __~

J ourneys Through N.

America, V

273

Alaska

Our World Today, IIL

274

Eskimos of the Far North Clothes

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 37 Home Life in Far-Away Lands 42

Food

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 42

Life in Summer

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 43

Life in Winter__~

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 48

Reindeer Herders

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 191

How Houses Are BuilL Alaska

Geography for Beginners, L_ 7

Living Geography, L

181

The North Pole

Journeys in Different Lands 141

A Dog That Flew Over the

North Pole

Child-Story, IV

52

Huts

Child-Story, IV

125

Kak-da of the Far North Snow Houses

Fact and Story, IV____________________ 24

Whys and Wherefores, V

258

204

Title of Story

Name of Book

--Chinook, A Famous Dog The Wonder World, IlL How the Wolf Became a Dog__ Treasure Chests, V

Page
-- 120 418

Explorers and Explorations

The Discovery of America The Growth of a Nation____________ 18

The Exploration of America__ The Growth of a Nation____________ 36

Territorial Expansion

The Growth of a Nation____________ 280

Expansion to the Pacific The Growth of a Nation

370

Steps Toward the Discovery

of America

The Story of Our Nation________ 1

Spain in the Race for America

The Story of Our Nation________ 35

England in the Race for America

The Story of Our Nation________ 51

France in the Race for America

The Story of Our Nation________ 78

Blazing a Way to the Mississippi

The Story of Our Nation 200

Blazing a Way to the Pacific

The Story of Our Nation________ 209

Expansion to the Pacific

The Story of Our Nation

251

Discovery of the New World__ Old Europe and Our Nation 357

The Story of the New World .American History

25

Very Much Land to Be

Possessed

American History

309

Easter Time The White Rabbit Holiday Riddles Easter Bunny The Easter Surprise
The Story of the Easter :R8Ibbit

Easter

Elson-Gray Readers, L____________ 173

Elson-Gray Readers, L

165

The Wonder World, IlL_________ 108

G00d Friends, L .

163

Elson-Gray, Primer

no

Elson-Gray Readers, 1L__

230

Halloween

=

The Halloween Cat

The J ack-o'-lantern

Halloween

A Halloween Story_.

Halloween

Webster Readers, IlL____________ 320

Elson-Gray Readers, 1L__________ 213

Surprise Stories

102

New Language Goals, IlL._____ 202

Guide Book for Language, IlL 145

205

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

<"t.:

July Fourth

My Fourth of July Wish
The War of Independence Holiday Riddles

Trails Beyond, VL

294

Growth of a Nation, VL

166

The Wonder World, IIL__________ 108

Farm Life

The White Hen Likes the

Farm

Surprise Stories

17

The Farmer

Surprise Stories

38

A Night on the Farm

Surprise Stories

40

On the Farm

Everyday Life, Primer

58

The Farmer's Helpers

Everyday Life, Primer____________ 62

The Farmer's Babies

Everyday Life, Primer

73

Going Home

Everyday Life, Primer

91

The Ride

Happy Hour, Primer

91

The Farm Garden

Happy Hour, Primer________________ 96

At Work on the Farm

Happy Hour, Primer

111

Fred and J ean

Good Times Together

83

A Good Plan

Good Times Together

87

The County Fair

Good Times Together

97

Going to the Farm

Work-Play, Primer

52

The Farm Dinner--------------------Work-Play, Primer

58

The Barnyard

Work-Play, Primer

63

A Letter from the Farm Work-Play, Primer

87

Good-Bye to the Farm

Work-Play, Primer

90

Cherry Farm

Happy Hour, L

115

The Hay Ride

Happy Hour, L

117

Food from the Farm

Happy Hour, L

133

Grandfather's Turkey Farm Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 89

Kinds of Bees

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 113

Back to the Country

New Stories

134

Life on a Colonial Farm

Pioneer Trails, VIL__________________ 13

My Grandmother's House Pioneer Trails, VIL

363

Fire

By the Fire

Work-Play, Primer

18

Fire, Fire

Peter and Peggy_______________________ 39

The Fire Engine

Webster, Primer

103

Fire, Fire

Webster, Primer

105

The Rescue

~New Stories, IL

110

Safety First for Little

Citizens .

. __Fact and Story, IIL

~. 235

206

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

---How Kenneth Helped the Fireman
The Fire Loss of Our Country
Forest Fires The Circle of Fire Between Two Fires Fire Fighting Long Ago A Life of Danger
The Indian "Fire Bed" A Forest Fire
A Fire on the Frontier
What You Should Know About Fire Prevention
The Young Fireman How Nan Saved Sally

Friends to Know, IL______________ 83

Whys and Wherefores, IV

195

Fact and Story, VIL________________ 49

Treasure Chest, V

36

Prose and Poetry, VL

318

Child-Story, IV __~

402

Child-Story, IV

406

Pioneer Trails, VIL__________________ 130

Child-Story, V

64

Trails Beyond, VL_______________ 26

Child-Story, VI

460

Elson-Gray, II

207

Elson-Gray, II

200

First Aid

Safety and First Aid Taking Care of Yourself How to Avoid Accidents Hikes, Picnics, Camping Safety and First Aid Safety First and First Aid First Aid
First Aid for Joanna

Personal and Public Health____ 281

Keeping Well, V

214

Building for Health, V

266

Healthy Living, VL________________ 81

The Body and Health, VL______ 268

Healthy Bodies, IIL_________________ 182

Health by Doing, IV

300

Health and Growing Up____________ 92

Food

Milk for the Dolls

Work-Play, Primer

36

The Farm Dinner

Work-Play, Primer

58

Bobby and the Apples

Elson-Gray, Primer

87

Dinner in the Garden

Elson-Gray, Primer

115

At the Picnic ~

Wag and Puff__________________________ 106

Gray Squirrel's Cupboard Fact and Story, IL_________________ 25

Good Health Rules

Fact and Story, IL__________________ 69

Seed for Dinner___

Work-Play, III

240

Soup from a NaiL

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 51

Jean's Sweet Tooth

-----Webster Readers, IIL

274

The Milk Station

Friends About Us, IIL__________ 99

A City Dairy

Friends About Us, IIL

102

The Ice Cream Factory

Friends About Us, IIL

106

The Fiesta Breakfast

Friends About Us, IIL

209

207

'l'itle of Story

Name of Book

Page

-<t.: The Story of Milk

Fact and Story, IlL

108

Making Butter

Fact and Story, IlL

~ 112

Something New for Supper Neighbors and Helpers, IlL__ 25

A Refrigerator on Wheels Neighbors and Helpers, IlL__ 147

The Lunch

Bob and Judy

71

Drinking Milk

Everyday Life, L______________________ 18

Getting Breakfast

Everyday Life, L________________ 56

At the Grocery Store

Everyday Life, L

105

Buying Meat and Fish

Everyday Life, 1_____________________ 114

Billy Boy and the Milk The Milkman

Webster Readers, IL______________ 68

New Stories

69

A Trip with the Milkman A Party for Betty

New Stories

75

Good Friends, L______________________ 19

Lunch Time Dinner Time Clean Food

The Road to Health, L __24, 27, 29 The Road to Health, L______________ 52 New Friends, IL_____________________ 121

The Parade of Vegetables Milk, The Builder

Building My House of Health 37 Building My House of Health 59

Patsy Irish Potato's Story Building My House of Health 84

The Breakfast Party

The Safety Hill of Health________ 12

Charlie Carrot's Friends At the Farm At the MarkeL

The Safety Hill of Health________ 48 Neighbors and Helpers, IL 187 Neighbors and Helpers, IL 191

The Parade of Tin Soldiers
A Trip to Grandfather's The Ranch

Neighbors and Helpers, IL 194 Neighbors and Helpers, IL 198
N eighbors and Helpers, n________ 209

The Packing House The Care of Food

Neighbors and Helpers, IL 213 Cleanliness and Health, Il________ 188

Foods to Eat for BreakfasL My Health Habits, L______________ 45

Jack's Breakfast

My Health Habits, L______________ 46

Vegetables

My Health Habits, L______________ 49

Why I Grow

My Health Habits, L______________ 50

Fruit

My Health Habits, L____________ 51

Milk

My Health Habits, L_____________ 58

Your Food and Drink

Health by Doing

153

Your Habits of Eating

Health by Doing_______________________ 181

Your Habits of Eliminatioll Health by Doing______________________ 194

A Visit to a Dairy Farm

Now We Are Growing_________ 63

A Sugar Factory in the

Backyard

Keeping Fit

42

Where Proteins Come From Keeping Fit

102

Growth and Repair Materials__Health, Turner and Collins____ 44

Go Materials

Health, Turner and Collins___ 53

208

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

- --i..egulations and Food Magic
Iron Foods and Bone Builders
Digestion
Keeping Good Digestion When to Eat Water Supply Wholesome Food Other Good Foods The Best Foods
Choosing Foods The Best Drinks
The Story of Water
The Selection of Foods Food and Water Food and Meals What Your Body Needs What Food Does for You Keeping Well Cheese

Health, Turner and Collins____ 61

Health, Turner and Collins___ 71

Health, Turner and Collins__ 78

Health, Turner and Collins_--_ 85 Health, Turner and Collins____ 91

Community Health

24

Community Health

41

Healthy Bodies

82

Healthy Bodies

76

Healthy Bodies

92

Healthy Bodies

101

Healthy Bodies

109

Personal and Public Health___ 75

Progress in Living

100

Healthy Living

1

Healthy Living

11

Keeping Well

47

Keeping Well

73

Child-Story, VI

233

Frogs

The Frog's Saddle Horn

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 83

The Frog and the Hen

Webster Readers, IL________________ 165

Mother Frog and Her Babies__Webster Readers, IL_______________ 65

The Hare and the Frogs

Webster Readers, II______________ 183

Spot and the Toad

Webster Readers, IL______________ 194

The Surprise Toads

Webster Readers, IL

196

The Two Frogs

Prose and Poetry, V_________________ 75

Games and Sports

Observation Party

Whys and Wherefores, V

Finding Exact Answers

Whys and Wherefores, V

Beetle Is Out

Whys and Wherefores, V

7

Riding a Hobby to Happiness__Trails Beyond, VL

How to Enjoy an Outing

Healthful Living, V

Public Amusem*nts

Healthful Living, V

244 283 374
462 ~ 163
191

Games and Sports__ The Treasure Hunt The Play Club Game

Healthful Living, VL______________ 58 Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 40 Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 55

Gardens

A Food of the Gods

Child-Story, V

353

209

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-0;--1..: Foods from the Farm

Good Friends, IL

----- 133

Vegetables for Home and

Market

Pleasant and Profitable

Farming

239

Corn

Pleasant and Profitable

Farming

84

Uncle Bob's Garden Helpers__ Friends to Know, IL_____________ 40

The Cedar Hill Garden

Exhibit

Friends to Know, IL

266

The Wonderful Gardener Elson-Gray, III

150

Little Pig and His Garden,

Burbank

Elson-Gray, II

144

My Little Garden Bob's Garden

Fact and Story, L____________________ 47 Fact and Story, L____________________ 48

The Big Cabbage At the MarkeL

Fact and Story, L__________________ 92

Fact and Story, IL

187

Grecian Baths Orpheus and Eurydice Sacrifice of Iphigenia Stories of the Trojan War

Greeks

Scouting Through, V

103

Scouting Through, V________________ 96

Child-Story, VII

334

Child-Story, VI

330

Indians

Indian Life and Customs The Indian "Fire Bed" An Indian Buffalo Hunt Blossom Bud's Home Helping Mother Hopi Indians at Work The Rabbit Hunt

Pioneer Trails, VIL

121

Pioneer Trails, VIL_________________ 130

Scouting Through, VL

259

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 265

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 269

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 273

Neighbors and Helpers, III 277

Spring in the Land of the Hopi
The Harvest Indian Names by the Month Little Bear and His Sister How to Make a Wigwam The Indian Story-Teller

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 281 Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 285 Fact and Story, IIL__________________ 78 Fact and Story, IIL_________________ 72 Fact and Story, IIL__________________ 80 Fact and Story, IIL__________________ 81

How Fire Came to the Indians
The Great Sky Bear

Fact and Story, IIL__________________ 82 Fact and Story, IIL________________ 89

Greedy Fawn and the Porridge

Fact and Story, IIL_______ 96

210

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-o-fndian Legends

Fact and Story, VL

355

Indian Children

Joyful Adventures, IV

266

Gun Powder Harvest Canoes of Indians An Indian Gift

Joyful Adventures, IV

267

J oyful Adventures, IV

328

New Friends, II________________________ 143

An Indian Museum

New Friends, II

159

How Straight Arrow Got His Name

New Friends, II____________________ 163

An Indian Play Indians

New Friends, II_____________________ 172

Best Stories

35

Little Eagle's Home

Friends About Us, II________________ 179

The Rice Fields The Deer Hunt

li'riends About Us, IL_____________ 187

Friends About Us, II

191

Little Eagle's New Clothes Friends About Us, II

199

Indians

Child-Story, VII

447

Using Indian Sign Language__ Fact and Fancies, IV______________ 1

The Indian Wild Rice

Fact and Fancies, IV________________ 22

Inventions and Discoveries

Boats

J oyful Adventures

292

Dobbin and the Automobile Fact and Fancies, IV

181

J ames Watt, The Inventor

of the Steam Engine Fact and Story, IV

117

McCormick and His Reaper Fact and Story, IV

269

The Invention of the Sewing Machine
Samuel de Champlain Finding Gold in California The Hawaiian Boy Who
Invented Sails

Fact and Story, V

227

Whys and Wherefores, V________ 51

Whys and Wherefores, V

162

Treasure Chests, V

148

The Story of Progress in

Harvesting Grain

Treasure Chests, V

327

Man Experiments

Child-Story, V

92

What a Chinese Princess

Discovered

Child-Story, V

183

Men and Women of Action Learning to Make a Report
from Three Sources Incidents in Edison's Life Honoring Thomas A. Edison The Discovery of America The Magic Effects of
Machinery

Fact and Story, VL__________________ 17

Pioneer Trails, VIL

343

Fact and Story, VIL

285

Prose and Poetry, VII

511

The Story of Our Nation, V____ 17

The Story of Our Nation, V 350

211

_Title of Story
-<to: The Automobile and the Airplane

Name of Book

Page

The Story of Our Nation ~ 389

Insects

Bees:
The Bee City The Bees Knees The Bees at Work. The Brown Bee The Bee The Busy Bees
How Buzzy Saved the Bee Hive
The Boy, The Bees and the British

Neighbors and Helpers, II 109

Child-Story, V

152

Neighbors and Helpers, II________ 112

Child-Story, IV

108

Child-Story, IV

109

Elson-Gray, I

107

Elson-Gray, III

._______________ 68

Elson-Gray, III

311

Mosquitoes:

Deadly Enemies

Child-Story, V

109

What Science Has Taught Us_Progress in Living__________________ 75

Moths and Butterflies:
No Moth Need Apply The Butterfly

Whys and Wherefores, V 267 Friendly 'Hour, VL__________________ 21

Other Insects:

Six Legged Enemies

Adventures in Living

121

Beetle Is Out

Whys and Wherefores, V

374

The Wasp and the Cricket Fact and Story, V

293

Grasshopper Green

Child-Story, IV -

110

Slave Hunting Ants

Child-Story, V

162

The Red Ant

-'-_Fact and Story, IV

175

Queer Insects

Child-Story, V

157

Japan an, d the Japanese

In a Schoolroom in America Webster Readers, IIL_____________ 152

Kite Flying in J apan ---- Fact apd Story, IV___________________ 70

Sleeping in Japan

Many Ways of Living, IV______ 59

Shoes That Fit the FeeL

Many Ways of Living, IV________ 99

Old and New Meet in Japan Living Geography, L

296

Japan's Early History

The Making of Today's World,

. VII

643

. 212

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--1iow Japan Took on Western Ways
Japan's Adventure Through War
Japan and the World

The Making of Today's World,

VII

645

The Making of Today's World,

VII

648

The Making of Today's World,

VII

650

Machines

Darius Green and His Flying Machine
The Train
The Ships The Airplane
Zeppelin in Brazil Old Fashioned Telegraphs McCormick and His Reaper Scythe Song
The Magic Effects of Machinery
Steam, Electricity and Machinery Change Life
The Automobile and Airplane

Child-Story, VII

.,- 227

Fact and Story, IIL

128

Fact and Story, IIL________________ 130

Fact and Story, IL

132

Pioneer Trails, VII____________________ 448

Fact and Story, IV

251

Fact and Story, IV

269

Fact and Story, IV

275

The Story of Our Nation 350

The Story of Our Nation________ 288

The Story of Our Nation 389

Mail

The Letter

New Stories, II_________________________ 1

A Letter

Bob and Judy, Primer

115

Sending a Telegram

Friends About Us, IL

160

Reading a Newspaper

Pioneer Trails, VIL ~

446

The Letter

Work-Play, Primer

. 49

A Letter from the Farm

Work-Play, Primer

87

The Valentine's Journey----------Elson-Gray, III

c

160

The Postman

.

I I I ~Elson-Gray,

168

Mrs. Strong's Paper

Everyday Life, L_______________________ 40

In the Letter Box

Happy Hour, Primer________________ 87

The Postman

.Elson-Gray, II

136

The Postman and the Children
A Surprise Valentine The Scrapbook

Fact and Story, Primer____________ 40

Webster Readers, IL

124

Neighbors and Helpers, IL____ 61

218

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

--1.,: The Trip Through the Post Office
Rural Delivery The Air MaiL
The Railway Post Office The Brave Post Riders The Pony Express_: 1 See by the Papers
A Letter from a Family of Five J's
Moses Cat Writes a Letter The Little Postboy
A Letter from Overseas
A Letter from the Land of Gay Color
A Letter from Camp Reading the Newspaper Letter from Lucknow Telegraph Wires

Neighbors and Helpers, II______ 64 .....Neighbors and Helpers, IL____ 68
Neighbors and Helpers, II______ 72
Neighbors and Helpers, IL____ 75 Neighbors and Helpers, II______ 79 Neighbors and Helpers, IL____ 83 Whys and Wherefores, V 386

Whys and Wherefores, V________ 46

Whys and Wherefores, V________ 31

Treasure Chests, V

51

Fact and Fancies, IV________________ 40

.Fact and Fancies, V

123

Fact and Fancies, V

282

Fact and Fancies, V

358

Trails Beyond, VL__________________ 264

Trails Beyond, VL_________________ 335

Maple Sugar

Maple Sugar Time Too Much Maple Sugar Maple Sugar
Making Maple Sugar and Syrup

Fact and Story Readers, IIL__ 115 Happy Hour Readers, II 129 Geography for Beginners 136
Living in the Americas____________ 50

Markets

Going to Market

.Everyday Life, L

105

At the Grocery Store

Everyday Life, L

105

Buying Meat and Fish

Everyday Life, L

114

Going to Market

Many Ways of Living

17

Trading Stations

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 25

Market Day (France)

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 123

Market Day in the Netherlands

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 105

Market Gardening A Mexican MarkeL

Home Life in Far-Away Lands 106

Friends About Us, IL

212

Going to MarkeL

Fact and Story, Book L__________ 9

Coming from MarkeL

Fact and Story, Book L__________ 10

Playing Market

Fact and Story, Book L__________ 11

Tibby and Tag at the Market__ Fact and Story, Primer and

Book 1

19

214

Title of Story
--The Phoenicians Freight for Europe
The Great Fair at Nizhni Novgorod
The Country Fair A City Store The Store At the MarkeL At the MarkeL The Fish Market

Name of Book

Page

Early Traders and Sailors, VI 333

Child-Story, VI

365

Child-Story, VI

356

Good Times Together, L_________ 97

Good Times Together, L__________ 117

J 0-Boy, Primer

78

Fact and Story, IL

187

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 191

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 206

Mother's Day Somebody's Mother Mother's Day

Mother's Day

Child-Story, IV

465

Treasure Chests, V

445

Good Friends, L________________________ 171

Parties

The Birthday

Webster Readers, Primer__~_____ 92

Come to My Party-----------------Ben and Alice, L____________________ 93

The Party in the Garden

Elson-Gray Readers, Primer__ 115

The Surprise Party--------------The Surprise Stories_____________ 64

Tillie's Birthday Party

Fact and Story, IL____________________ 7

The Valentine Party

New Friends

76

Molly's First Party----------------Elson-Gray Readers, IL__________ 12

Mrs. Goose's Party

Elson-Gray Readers, IL__________ 86

Betty's Sewing Society----------Pioneers, IV

314

The Cats Have Come to Tea Child-Story Readers, IV

114

Having Fun at a Party------------Everyday Living, IV_______________ 71

White Bath Tubs

Health Stories and Practices,

III

33

Pets

With Pets

~

The Story of a Pet Bear

The Bears and the Children

Children and Their Pets

How Toby Helped Ted

Everyday Life, Primer_____________ 1

Fact and Story, IL__________________ 26

Elson-Gray, III

35

Friends About Us___________________ 111

Good Times Together

30

Peter and Peggy-------------------Peter and Peggy------------------------ 3

The Black Rooster

Peter and Peggy------------------------ 63

The Rabbit Black Dog

Peter and Peggy------------------------ 97

Peter and Peggy

106

Yellow Cat

Peter and Peggy------------------------ 108

215

Title of Story
-;;---2..:
Pets in a Store The Pet Show

Name of Book

Page

Pet Shows

Happy Hour Readers, Primer 70

Friends About Us, IL

125

Four Rabbits The Little House Little Rabbit Bunny Boy Bunny Plays a Trick The White Easter Rabbit Mr. Rabbit
Topsy and the RabbiL The Rabbit's Trick
What Frightened Little Rabbit
Jack and the Rabbit
Hunter and the Rabbit Little Jack Rabbit The Rabbit Hunt Dicky Walker's Rabbit Bunny Goes to SchooL
Why the Rabbit's Tale Is Short

Rabbits

Happy Hour, Primer________________ 68

Dick and Jane, Preprimer

31

Elson-Gray, Primer

71

Elson-Gray, I

13

Elson-Gray, I

35

Elson-Gray, I

165

Work-Play, I

15

Work-Play, I

74

Work-Play, I

149

Fact and Story, Primer____________ 31

Ben and Alice, Primer

118

Make and Make Believe, IIL__ 41

Friendly Stories, IL_________________ 31

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 277

Pets and Friends, IL______________ 99

Playmates, I

151

Elson-Gray, III

117

Geography at a Glance The Rainbow ~ Rain April Rain
Thunder and Lightning Laughs at Umbrellas
The African Rainmaker Rain in Summer Fun in the Rain
One Stormy Night_________ Rain in the Night_______ _ A Wet, Hot Region

Rain

Pioneer Trails, VIL_______________ 139

Fact and Story, VIL_______________ 48 Trails Beyond, VL_________________ 65

Prose and Poetry, V

169

Treasure Chests

427

Treasure Chests

154

Whys and Wherefores, V

379

Prose and Poetry, IV

253

Elson-Gray, I

24

_ Webster Readers, II______________ 79

Webster Readers, IIL__

273

J ourneys Through Many

Lands

34

Roman Baths

Romans

Scouting Through, VL

105

216

Title of Story
-:ROman Boy's Light Cornelia's Jewels Horatius at the Bridge The Revenge of Coriolanus Southern Italy

Name of Book

Page

Webster Readers, IIL

310

Prose and Poetry, IV~

_" 12

Prose and Poetry, V

333

Prose and Poetry, VL

427

Living in Different Lands________ 97

Safety

The Man in Blue Stop! Wait! GoL Fire! Fire! The Fire Engine The Fire Engine City Friends The Fire The Rescue Safety First
Tell the Policeman The Traffic Man

Happy Hour, Primer________________ 83

Happy Hour, Primer

82

Work-Play, Primer

39

Webster, Primer

103

Happy Hour, L_____________________ 70

Happy Hour, L_______________________ 73

Friends About Us___________________ 63

New Stories, IL

110

New Friends, IL

118

New Friends, IL

119

Fact and Story, IIL

234

Safety First for Little

Citizens

Fact and Story, IIL

235

Safety First for Your Dog Fact and Story, IIL

239

Safe or Sorry

Fact and Fancies, IV

67

What Might Happen

Fact and Fancies, IV_______________ 76

Preventing Forest Fires Joyful Adventures, IV

114

The Fire Loss of Our Country_Whys and Wherefores, V 195

What You Should Know

About Fire Prevention Child-Story, VI

460

What Makes a Fire

.._Scouting Through, VL

196

How to Use Matches

Scouting Through, VL

200

Safety Hill

The Safety Hill of Health, L__ 4

First Aid for Joanna

Health and Growing Up, 11______ 92

An Automobile AccidenL Now We Are Growing

132

Being Careful

Healthy Bodies, IIL________________ 192

Safety First and First Aid Healthy Bodies, IIL_________________ 182

Your Safety at SchooL

Health by Doing, IV

271

Your Safety at Home

Health by Doing, IV

277

Your Safety When Away

From Home

Health by Doing, IV

288

First Aid

Health by Doing, IV

300

Safety and the Home

Everyday Living, IV

166

Safety

Keeping Well, V

196

Taking Care of Yourself Keeping Well, V

214

How to Avoid Accidents

Building for Health, V

266

217

Title of Story
-:.---2,: Protecting Others from Diseases
Helping Others Safety and First Aid Safety Safety and First Aid
Safety A Life Saving TraiL

Name of Book

Page

Healthy Living, VL

158

Healthy Living, VL

185

The Body and Health, VL______ 268

Community Health, VL

170

Personal and Public Health,

VII

281

Turner and Collins, VL__________ 40

Blazing the Trail, VL______________ 23

School Life

A Colonial SchooL

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 226

Lessons in Colonial Schools Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 230

Welcome to Our SchooL

The Wonder World, IIL__________ 22

Your Own Classroom Library

The Wonder World, IIL________ 31

In a Schoolroom in America Webster Readers, IIL__________ 152

At School in China

Work-Play, III

145

Tiny Ping's Lesson

Work-Play, III

151

The Very Black Kitty

Work-Play Books, IIL______________ 156

In School Days

Prose and Poetry, V

279

Ellen Goes to a New SchooL__ Many Ways of Living, IV 159

School Days

Everyday Life, L______________________ 1

Going to SchooL

Everyday Life, L______________________ 72

Feeding the Fish

Everyday Life, L____________________ 76

Finding the Janitor

Everyday Life, L______________________ 80

A Busy Janitor

Everyday Life, L____________________ 84

Someone Comes to SchooL Everyday Life, L______________________ 92

School Is Over

Everyday Life, L______________________ 95

Playing with the Big Boys Everyday Life, L______________________ 98

Jane Plays SchooL

Webster Readers, L__________________ 38

Jip Goes to SchooL

Webster Readers, L__________________ 45

Playing School

Work-Play Books, Primer________ 42

The First Day~

Work-Play Books, Primer

95

The Rabbit

Work-Play Books, Primer________ 97

The First Grade Makes a

House

Work-Play Books, Primer

99

Peter's Story

Work-Play Books, Primer 103

The Slow Turtle

Happy Hour Readers, L__________ 37

Flower Bulbs

Happy Hour Readers, L__________ 40

A Birthday Picnic

Happy Hour Readers, L__________ 43

The New Boy

Happy Hour Readers, L__________ 46

In School -

Happy Hour Readers, L_________ 53

218

Title of Story
-ALHen in SchooL Ding Dong School Again Going to SchooL
Playing School Billy Goes to SchooL Judy at SchooL The School Radio A Studio In the Studio At Work The Radio Party The Surprise Going Home Making Things at SchooL School Days Tom Brown's School Days Abraham Lincoln's School
Days

Name of Book

Page

Wag and Puff, Primer____________ 52

Wag and Puff, Primer

112

Wag and Puff, Primer

118

Fact and Story Readers,

Primer

63

Fact and Story, Primer

103

Elson Basic Readers, L

103

Bob and Judy, Primer____________ 85

Bob and Judy, Primer

89

Bob and Judy, Primer

92

Bob and Judy, Primer

95

Bob and Judy, Primer____________ 99

Bob and Judy, Primer

103

Bob and Judy, Primer

106

Bob and Judy, Primer

109

Bob and Judy, Primer

133

Friends About Us, IL______________ 29

Prose and Poetry, VIL

121

Friendly Hour, V______________________ 438

Gary's Garden Baby Seeds Billy's Garden Surprise Seeds
How the Seeds Find New Homes
Making a Garden

Seeds

Everyday Life, Preprimer_____ 36

Webster Readers, IL

102

Fact and Story, IL

203

Work-Play Books, IlL______________ 231

Fact and Fancies, IV

313

Fact and Story Readers, IV 163

The Great Sky Bear
Flash Light and Starlight Child's Dream of a Star Stars Jerry and the Star The Star Dipper
Star's Dust

Stars

Fact and Story Rfladers, IlL__ 89

Neighbors and Helpers, IlL__ 28

Child-Story Readers, VIL

105

Child-Story Readers, VIl_________ 274

Good Friends, II_______________________ 97

EIson-Gray, II

155

Child-Story Readers, V

166

Your Teeth Good Teeth

Teeth

Health By Doing, IVc_________________ 63

Building for Health, V

143

219

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-<L Caring for Your Teeth

Healthy Living,VL

124

Our Tools for Chewing Teeth

The Body and Health, VL______ 87

Keeping Well, VIL

139

Care of the Teeth and Mouth__ Helpful Living, V________________ 83

The Tooth BruslL

My Health Habits, L______________ 31

Teeth

The Road to Health, L____________ 15

Nine Little School Boys

Building My House of Health,

II

11

A Trip with Father
Care of Your Teeth Teeth ..,.

The Road of Health to Grown Up Town________________ 75
Healthy Bodies, V___________________ 65 Cleanliness and Health, VL____ 74

Thanksgiving

A Glad Thanksgiving

Elson-Gray, I

151

The Thanksgiving Leaves Elson-Gray, III

235

A Thanksgiving Fable

Elson-Gray, III

.--

243

Holiday Riddles

Wonder World

108

The Thanksgiving Pie That Grew

Webster Readers, IlL____________ 322

How Patty Said Thank You Elson-Gray, Primer

95

The Doll's Thanksgiving

Dinner

Elson-Gray, II

219

A Thanksgiving Joke

Surprise Stories, L

110

Twice a Thankful Colony Fact and Fancies, IV

131

Thanksgiving

New Language Goals, IlL______ 210

Talking about Thanksgiving

Day

- _Better English, III and IV

41

Toys

Nip and Tuck

Preprimer

14

Fact and Story The Little Book

Preprimer Preprimer

mhm

m

__ m___

16 40

Tom and Jip- c

"'-__Webster, Preprimer

18

Dick and Jane

Elson-Gray, Preprimer

24

Many Pretty Toys Buy a Toy

Happy Hour, Preprimer__________ 24 Fact and Story, L______________________ 28

The Little Red Sloo Making Playthings Toy Train

Webster Readers, IL

103

Webster Readers, IL

106

Good Friends __

152

The Doll's Thanksgiving

Dinner

Elson-Gray, II

219

~20

Title of Story
--The Red Wagon Pets, Toys and Play Punch and Judy The Lucky Boy of Toyville How to Make a Telephone Billy and His Gun The Constant Tin Soldier

Name of Book

Page

Elson-Gray, II

125

Elson-Gray, I

7

Friends About V s______________________ 44

Fact and Story, V

156

Fact and Fancies, IV

288

Fact and Fancies, IV

333

J oyful Adventures

54

Transportation

The Airplane

Wonder World, IlL__________________ 254

History in Pictures

Wonder World, IlL__________________ 255

Railroads -------------

Happy Hour, IL_____________________ 136

Trains ----------------

Happy Hour, II_______________________ 135

Starting the Trip----------------------Friends About Vs

152

Night on the Train

Friends About V s____________________ 156

A Trip with Uncle Bob-----------Friends About Vs

163

An Ocean Liner---

:B'riends About V s______ 169

An Airplane Ride-

Friends About Us_____

173

The Airplane Ride The Train Ride

J o-Boy J o-Boy

"_________________________ 50 44

Rivers and Lakes as Highways

V. S. in the Modern World

221

Land and Air Transportation__V. S. in the Modern World________ 230

A Visit -----------------------------__ Good Times Together

123

An Airport -

Good Times Together

126

An Airplane ---

Good Times Together

1~9

The Big BoaL The First Boat

Good Times Together

132

Child-Story, IV

150

Early Flying ----------------

Child-Story, IV

157

Indian Canoes

Child-Story, IV

161

Elevated Trains ---------------- Child-Story, IV

183

A City on the Ocean

Child-Story, IV

187

How Two Ideas Made the

Railroad ----------------------_Child-Story, IV

199

Man's Best Friend in the

North ------------------------_Child-Story, IV

168

The First Man to Fly Around

the World

Child-Story, IV

178

Dobbin and the Automobile Fact and Fancies, IV

181

Commander Byrd's Flight

to the North Pole

Child-Story, V

227

Lindbergh Flies Alone

Fact and Story, VIL

222

221

Title of Story

Name of Book

Page

-::"-.,-.1..: How Lindbergh Learned to Fly
Roadways

Fact and Story, VIL_____________ 11

Fact and Story, VL

144

Robert Fulton and the Steamboat

Fact and Story, VL__________________ 17

Stepping Stones for

Seaplanes

Trails Beyond, IV

139

The Cave Boy Finds a Way to

Cross a Great River

Joyful Adventures, IV

292

The Cave Men Build a Raft Joyful Adventures, IV

306

Beaver and Crane Make a

Dugout Canoe

J oyful Adventures, IV

313

Canoes of the Indians

J oyful Adventures, IV

328

The Big Row Boat of Long

Ago

Joyful Adventures, IV

338

Boats Take Wings

J oyful Adventures, IV

358

Trees

Planting the Tree Leaf Casting
A Trip to the North Woods
The Thorn Tree That Bloomed at Christmas
An Apple Orchard in the Spring
Rubber Trees Uncorking Cork Trees Our Forest ---Maple Leaves October Colors The Maple The Gum Drop Tree
The Wonderland of Redwood Trees
Elms Pines Oaks Maples Willows Dogwood The Pine Tree Aspects of the Pines

Fact and Story, V

318

Pioneer Trails, VIL_______________ 96

Friends About Us, IL______________ 3

Child-Story, VI

48

Child-Story, VI

117

Child-Story, VI

143

Child-Story, VI

162

Fact and Story, VIL_____________ 45

Fact and Story, VII________________ 47

Fact and Story, VIL_____________ 48

Fact and Story, VII_______________ 48

Elson-Gray, I

77

Whys and Wherefores, V

376

The Find Out Book, IL

120

The Find Out Book, IL__________ 122

The Find Out Book, IL__________ 124

The Find Out Book, IL__________ 126

The Find Out Book, IL__________ 128

The Find Out Book, II___________ 130

Prose and Poetry, VL______________ 30

Prose and Poetry, VL

150

222

Title of Story
. -o'!IDe Blu"ejay Tree
The Apple Tree

Name of Book

Page

Elson-Gray, I -'-____________________ 44

Elson-Gray, II

. 93

Valentine

The Valentine's Journey Holiday Riddles The Lost Valentine A Valentine Party
A Surprise Valentine Red Hen and the Valentine St. Valentine Day
A Fairy Valentine Valentine Rimes Valentine Day Your Valentine

Elson-Gray, III

160

The Wonder World, IIL

108

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 329

New Friends, IL______________________ 76

Webster Readers, IL_____________ 124

Elson-Gray, Primer

106

New Language Goals, IIL 228

Guide Book for Language, III 150

Guide Book for Language, III 153

The Language Garden, IL______ 124

The Language Garden, 11.____ 125

Washington

The Old Flag

Elson-Gray, I

160

A Little Lad of Long Ago Elson-Gray, III

258

Why Jimmie Missed the

Parade

Elson-Gray, III

263

Holiday Riddles

Wonder World, IIL

108

General Washington for

Dinner

Fact and Story, VII

350

The Ginger Bread Horse Wide Windows, III________________ 303

Washington's Birthplace Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 251

Washington's Boyhood Home__ Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 255

Mt. Vernon

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL 259

Washington and His Brave

Army

Fact and Story, V

345

Washington Sets New Government

Story of Our Nation__________________ 188

Winter-Snow

A Bit of Forest Magic Jean's Sweet Tooth The New Year Winter in Norway Wild Turkeys
A Home in the Far North The Eskimo Puppies Hunting the Walrus

Webster Readers, IIL______________ 259

Webster Readers, IIL

274

Webster Readers, IIL_____________ 328

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 321

Neighbors and Helpers, IIL__ 97

Friends About Us

225

Friends About Us____________________ 229

Friends About Us

233

223

Title of Story
-<L The Polar Cubs Eskimo Games Sallie's First Snow Man A Visit to an Igloo Caspar, The Snow King The Snow Storm Winter Gardens Chinook, A Famous Dog Peter Takes a Trip A Glad Thanksgiving

Name of Book

Page

Friends About Us

237

Friends About Us

~

249

New Friends, IL______________________ 31

New Friends, IL_____________________ 38

Treasure Chests, V__________________ 1

Prose and Poetry, VL

139

The Wonder World____________________ 91

The Wonder World

120

The Wonder World___________________ 299

Elson-Gray, I

151

Work and Workers

Working Together to Keep

Clean

Keeping Well

113

Little Workers

Elson-Gray, I

93

Workers Everywhere

Elson-Gray, III

134

Workers and Helpers

Wheels and Wings, IL

102

Big and Little Workers

Elson-Gray, II

125

Billy's Garden Surprise

Fact and Story, IL

203

At the Market

Fact and Story, IL

187

The Roll of Bread

Fact and Story, IL

166

Bob and Judy at Work

Bob and Judy, Primer___________ 48

Work and Fun for All

J o-Boy, Primer

27

The Grocery

Friends About Us, IL_____________ 53

Keeping Warm

The Wonder World, IIL

157

The Doctor Comes in the Night

Wide Windows, IIL________________ 30

Trains

.

Wide Windows, IIL_______________ 135

Spinners and Her Web

Wide Windows, IIL

149

The Men Who Work for Us Fact and Story, V

117

Working Like a Beaver

Whys and Wherefores, Y

152

Woodman, Spare That Tree Prose and Poetry, V

513

The Builders

Prose and Poetry, V_________ 149

How People Work for Us Child-Story, VI

136

The Master of the Harvest Prose and Poetry, VL______

87

Two Woodmen

Prose and Poetry, VII___ 525

The World's Work.

Fact and Story, VL

199

Farmers of Today

Prose and Poetry, VII

526

Whang the Miller

Child-Story, VII

388

With People Who Do Things Fact and Story Readers, VII_ 285

Working Together for Health

and Recreation

Progress in Living

183

How People Work for One

Another

Geography for Beginners, L __ 194

224

A GUIDE FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH
-cS{:HOOLS WHICH MAINTAIN TRANSITIONALPROGRAMS
Democracy is served when the means of self-improvement and opportunities for contributing to social betterment are made universally available. It is this principle, so vitally involved in the ideal of democracy, that has been the polar star guiding educational leaders in their adventures in human engineering. It has served as a basis of the fight against child labor, for compulsory education, and for free textbooks. The legislative halls of the nation for a generation have echoed the voices of men of understanding and vision as they pleaded for recognition of these elemental needs and rights of all children. It is worth remembering that success in the conflict has not been easy, but on the contrary, has been achieved in the face of determined opposition by those committed to the principle of rugged individualism, unmindful of social responsibility.
The successful issue of the struggle for a democratic principle is only a half-victory. There remains the necessity of applying the principle in life processes working in and through the institutions society has established as its control-power. Failure to apply intelligently the hard won principle in the processes of democratic living voids its value. Such failure may, indeed, result in new problems, new dangers, new weaknesses more serious than those existing before. Universal franchise, property rights, trial by jury, to mention only a few, are examples of democratic principles established after centuries of struggle; yet today they constitute major problems in the social order. Failure to follow through consistently is the basic cause of the weaknesses now apparent in democratic society.
The successful issue of the struggle for free textbooks in Georgia is only a partial victory for the democratic principle involved. The earnest efforts of the Governor and the members of the legislature who enacted and approved the law, the members of the State Board of Education who have provided a generous selection of texts-all will have failed if the teachers in the schools of the state fail to follow through the full implications of the democratic principle involved.
The State Board of Education has met the issues so far as its responsibilities are concerned. Its decision to commission a professional group to select the texts,. to provide opportunity for all publishers to appear to present their offerings, and its efforts to secure the most value in textbooks for the money appropriated for the purpose, all attest loyalty to democratic principles. The
225

"'1

idea of multiple listing of books, however, is that feature of the pro.cedure which most fittingly and convincingly expresses the

..

-.1..: desire of the Board to follow through the democratic ideal.

~~

What are the implications of the multiple list of free text-

~~1

books provided by the state? The purpose underlying such a list

.

is not to present a variety of books in each subject matter area

from which one textbook for a given course may be chosen. There

is no analogy here to selecting a hat from a large stock to fill the

need of only the chooser. The procedure is more like that of

intelligent parents engaged in Christmas shopping; this is for

John because it fits his need, that for Sue because it fits her need.

It is not practical, of course, for teachers to select from the

approved list books for individual pupils, but it is altogether

possible for them to select books that will meet the needs of particular groups of children within a given class. Books are tools;

what profits it a child to put into his hands a tool he cannot use?

Books are the creative experiences of individuals; how can the

child enter into the experiences of another if he has no common

ground with the other? It is fair to conclude, it would seem, that

one of the implications of the multiple list is that the needs and

interests of all children are not the same. And the process of

child development takes its point of departure from the felt needs

and interests of the child. "We learn what we accept to live by,"

says Kilpatrick. The converse of Kilpatrick's statement is equally

true.

A second implication of the multiple list is that the teacher

knows the needs of his students. The opportunity for choice is

provided because the State Board of Education has confidence in

the ability of teachers to direct the educative process, the focal

point of which is the child, not the textbook.

Other implications of the multiple listing idea have to do

with the nature of subject matter and class organization. We

now turn to a brief discussion of each.

SUBJECT MATTER
When we consider the aim of education, which in simplest analysis is to produce good citizens for life in a democracy, it is obvious that subject matter is not a goal in education but rather a means toward an end. No longer can we judge the progress of pupils in terms of the factual knowledge they acquire. No longer can we assign certain pages of subject matter in a book and consider the mastery of it as progress in education for all members of the group. Subject matter must be a tool used by pupils
226

and teachers to solve problems which are both interesting and important to them. -o<L Under this conception, subject matter is material from whatever sources-books, magazines, pamphlets, newspapers, the radio, etc.-to be used for definite purposes, not merely to be memorized as evidence of mental accomplishment. This does not lessen the importance of subject matter, but on the contrary, its importance is increased. In like manner source materials, from which subject matter can be obtained, become increasingly important. While subject matter must be sought wherever it may be found and never overlooked, no matter how simple or crude its source may be, undoubtedly books are the most important sources.
The program under which free textbooks are furnished to the pupils in the schools of Georgia is built upon this conception of the nature and place of subject matter, and is in line with the philosophy already developed. The program makes it possible for pupils and teachers to have a wealth of subject matter from which to choose that which answers their needs. It provides every opportunity for pupils to master the fundamental tools of education-reading, writing and the number combinations-which are and always will be basic to education; and further, it makes it possible for them to become increasingly self-directive individuals, co-operating with others in the solution of problems. All of this is in keeping with the democratic ideal.
Apparently teachers must develop new techniques in approaching their duties. They must first discover particular points within broadly defined areas about which they will be concerned. This can be done by (1) knowing the pupils, their needs, interests, purposes, and (2) knowing the community, its needs and its resources. Upon these bases significant problems will be revealed upon which pupils can and will want to work.
Fortunately teachers in Georgia can now have a number of different books which will be used as books should be used; books to suit the varying levels of ability in any groups; books presenting the opinions and attitudes of various authors, in addition to pure fact; books emphasizing different angles of approach to many problems; books containing a wealth of subject matterreal tools of education based on the ideal of democracy.
CLASS ORGANIZATION
The fourth implication in beginning a progressive program with a group of students is that of class organization. This is a twofold problem as approached from the secondary school level.
First of all a certain flexibility in school administration is
227

necessary. Many occasions will arise which require a departure from a set schedule of periods and bells, and which can be easily -o<t.: provided by a flexible administration. A sympathetic administration can and will easily provide this flexibility. Certain of the school subjects, such as for example, English and the social sciences, may be handled by one teacher so as to provide longer, uninterrupted learning periods. Close co-operation among teachers in subject matter fields will add much to the program of experiences of the pupils.
The organization of the classroom group is the second factor in the success of an experience program. When the larger problem before the class is approached by the group, it will break down into a number of smaller problems, each of which may be handled by a smaller group. These problems will provide activities within the range of the interests of individual pupils.
Many of the activities will be class activities, but many more will resolve about smaller groups of pupils or individuals. The size of the group will depend, to a large extent, upon the particular type of activity; however, groups of from four to ten pupils usually will be sufficient for most problems.
Tables and chairs, in place of fixed desks, will assist greatly in the matter of group organization. They will lend informality as well as make possible a more democratic procedure.
Opportunity both for leadership and for exercise of individual abilities are provided in this type of classroom organization; activities engaged in become genuine learning experiences.
Finally, move slowly, feel the way along, and be prepared to make changes as they become necessary.
228

A GUIDE FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
-<t.: WHICH MAINTAIN PROGRESSIVE PROGRAMS
Mastering the textbook as a philosophy of teaching would be rejected by every wide-awake teacher. However, this rejection would necessarily remain a matter of theory rather than practice if the state did not furnish the schools with a variety of teaching materials. The multiple listing of the textbooks furnished free by the state enables the teacher to provide for individual differences, to give to the pupils experience in the use of a variety of materials, to develop a spirit of co-operation, initiative, and self-activity on the part of the pupils. Below are examples of ways in which the state adopted books have been used successfully during the past year on the secondary level.
PART I, SOCIAL STUDIES AND ENGLISH
In the traditional school the student in the junior class took modern European history and English, beginning on page 1 and continuing to the end of the book. Dissatisfaction with inadequate results from both the standpoint of skills acquired and the carryover of the information gained by this formal lesson-hearing method has caused teachers to seek more desirable means of teaching the two studies. The teachers in Moultrie High School have found a practical solution of the problem in the integration of social studies and English; art, music, and other subjects being brought in when and where they are most needed.
The "current problems" or "problems of the day" approach was selected as most practical. In this procedure an effort was made to center the material from the content fields around one country or problems of one country.
Every teacher of contemporary aspects of life knows that one textbook, or several textbooks on history, could not suffice. Materials must be drawn from the fields of geography, sociology, economics, history, literature, science, art, music, and the normal avenues of communication-the press, the motion picture, and the radio.
The state of Georgia has supplied the social studies and English classrooms with ample material to carryon such a program as the one described. Effective instruction requires a far more discriminating use of these aids than most Georgia schools now practice.
Since there is no one textbook that may be used in this procedure, a summary of a unit of work taught by the author is humbly offered here as one example of the many uses of textbooks
229

in the "problems of the day" approach to social studies and

English.

-0-2,;

The following unit required six weeks and two hour periods

each day.

Consideration of current events led the students to select for

study the question, "Why does France play such a leading part in

current affairs?" They recalled what they had already learned

about France and listed the questions they would like to have ans-

wered. One student suggested the easiest way to find the answer

would be to make a study of the five phases of life in France. The

class voted to accept his suggestion with the modification that they

first take a brief study of the geographical background of

French life.

The next lesson was one of research to find all possible

sources of information relating to the problem. The students'

list was finally evolved into the following outline:

I. Geography of France.
Problem: How the geography of France has influenced the story of the French people.
Read accounts in at least two of the following books: *Jones, Economic Geography. (See index, France.) *Rogers, Adams, and Brown, Story of Nations, Chap. 46.
Staples and York, Economic Geography, p. 559-564.

II. The Political History of France.
Problem: How France came to have political democracy. Read the account in *Rogers, Adams, and Brown, Story of Nations, p. 376-403, and in at least one of the following: *Hughes, The Making of Today's World. (See index.) *Perkins, Man's Advancing Civilization. (See index.) *Webster and Wesley, World Civilization. (See index.)

III. The Industrial History of France.
Problem: How the people of France make a living. Packard, Sinnott, and Overton, Nations at Work, p. 484-498.

IV. The Religious History of France.
Problem: How religion has influenced the history of France.
Read accounts in at least two of the following books. For modern religion, see any standard encyclopedia. *Hughes, The Making of Today's World. (See index,

*All books marked thus are on the state adopted list.

230

"I
France, Reformation and Concordats.) *Perkins, Man's Advancing Civilization. *Webster and Wesley, World Civilization.
V. The Education of France. Read accounts of the history of education and the present-day education of France in any good encyclopedia.
VI. The Social and Cultural History of France. Problem: How the social and cultural history of France have influenced the present-day importance of France.
A. Art. Read the account in *Rogers, Adams, and Brown, Story of Nations, p. 403-411; and in *Moore, People and Art, p. 257-270, or the life of Watteau, David, Ingres, Millet, Rousseau, Carot, Monet, Renoir, Czanne, and Van Gogh in any encyclopedia.
B. Literature. Read "A Tale of Two Cities" in *Romance, and at least one selection from the following groups: 1. Biography. *Good Companions, "Joan Rides to the King" and "The Maid of Orleans," Paine. */nteresting Friends, "Louis Pasteur, Lifesaver," Gilbert. *Prose and Poetry for Enjoyment, "Edith Cavell," Hagedorn. *Prose and Poetry of England, "Disraeli in London," Maurois. *Widening Horizons, "A Hilltop on the Marne," Aldrich. Books in school library: Clemenceau, Martet Daughter of the Seine, Eaton Father Marquette, Thwaites Fighters for Peace, Parkman Girl in White Armor, Paine Heroines of Service, Parkman Jeanne d'Arc, Bangs Joan of Are, Holmes Lafayette, Latzko Lafayette, Boy's Life of, Nicolay Louis Pasteur, Vallery-Radot
281

Marie Antoinette, Zweig

--2,:

Men Who Found Out, Williams-Ellis

Microbe Hunters, DeKruif

Modern Pioneers, Cohen and Scarlet

Napoleon, Ludwig

Napoleon, Life of, Arnault

Napoleon and His Marshals, Headley

Richelieu, Lodge

Turbulent duch*ess, Brebner

Notable Women in History, Abbot

2. Essay.
*American Literature, "Invasion of France by King Edward III," Froissart; "Of Repenting," Montaigne. *English Literature, "Joan of Arc," De Quincey. *Prose and Poetry for Appreciation, "Ingo," Morley. *Prose and Poetry of England, "Against Idleness," Montaigne. *Voices of America, "What Is an American?" De Crevecoeur.

8. Fiction.
Adventure of Francois, Mitchell Aimee Villard, Silvestre Alice of Old Vincennes, Thompson Bardelys the Magnificent, Sabatini Beau Geste, Wren Beau Sabreur, Wren Black Tulip, Dumas Catherine de Medici, Balzac Chevalier d'Harmental, Dumas Chicot the Jester, Dumas Clutch of the Corsican, Bill Code of Victor Jallot, Carpenter Collette in France, McDonald Count of Monte Cristo, Dumas Countess of Charney, Dumas Crime of Silvestre Bonnard, France Cross of Peace, Gibbs Durandall, Lamb Eugennie Grandet, Balzac Forty-five Guardsmen, Dumas Gentlemen of France, Weyman

232

Gods Are Athirst, The, France Grandissimes, Cable Hunchback of Notre Dame, Hugo Jeanne Margot, Cleugh Jimmy Goes to War, Quirk Joseph Balsamo, Dumas Last of the Mohicans, Cooper Les Miserables, Hugo Little French Girl, Sedgwick Louise de la Valliere, Dumas Man in the Iron Mask, Dumas Margaret de Valois, Dumas Maria Chapdelaine, Hernon Memoirs of a Physician, Dumas *Monsieur Beaucaire, Tarkington
American Literature
Monsieur Bergeret in Paris, France New Adventures f d'Artagnan, Penjean Ninety-Three, Hugo Nun, The, Basin Nuptials of Corbal, Sabatini Old Countess, The, Sedgwick Page of the Duke Of Savoy, Dumas Paul of France, Stratton Peasant and Prince, Martineau Pere Goriot, Balzac Petticoat Court, Lovelace Queen's Necklace, Dumas Quentin Durward, Scott Red Caps and Lilies, Adams Reds of the Midi, Gras Red Prior's Legacy, Bill Regent's Daughter, Dumas Remi, The Adventures of, Mallot Road to Frontenac, Mervin Scaramouche, Sabatini Scarlet co*ckerel, Sublette Scarlet Pimpernel, Orczy Seats of the Mighty, Parker Shadows on the Rock, Cather Story of Tonty, Catherwood Taking the Bastile, Dumas *Tale of Two Cities, Dickens
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Prose and Poetry of England; Romance
Talisman, Scott Ten Years Later, Dumas Three Musketeers, Dumas Triumph of the Scarlet Pimpernel, Orczy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Verne Two Dianas, Dumas Uncrowned King, Orczy Under Fire, Barbusse Vengeance of Scaramouche, Saootini Whirlwind, The, Davis White Company, Doyle Vicomte de Bragelonne, Dumas Way of the Scarlet Pimpernel, Orczy When a Cobbler Ruled the King, Seaman
4. Poetry.
*American Literature, "The Man with the Hoe," Markham; "I Have a Rendezvous with Death," Seeger. *English Literature, "The Eve of Waterloo," from "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage." *Interesting Friends, "Incident of the French Camp," Browning. *Prose and Poetry for Enjoyment, "Herve Riel," Browning; "The Ballad of Jean Lafitte," Cheaney; "The Hell-Gate of Soissons," Kaufman. *Prose and Poetry of England, "The Sleeper of the Valley," Rimbaud.
5. Short Stories.
*Good Companions, "The Necklace," De Maupassanto
*Interesting Friends, "The Purloined Letter," Poe. *Prose and Poetry for Enjoyment, "The Neck.lace," De Maupassant; "The Sire de Maletroit's Door," Stevenson. *Prose and Poetry of America, "Jean-Ah Poque-
lin," Cable. *Prose and Poetry of England, "The Substitute," Coppee.
*Widening Horizons, "The Purloined Letter," Poe.
6. Magazine Articles.
"Across French and Spanish Morrocco," Na-
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tional Geographic Magazine, October, 1935. "Beyond the Grand Atlas," National Geographic Magazine, March, 1932. "By Motor Trail Across French Indo-China," National Geographic Magazine, October, 1935. "Falconry the Sport of Kings," National Geographic Magazine, December, 1920. "In Necessity's Mortar," Golden Book, June, 1933. "Land of William the Conqueror," National Geographic Magazine, January, 1932. "Normandy-Choice of the Vikings," National Geographic Magazine, May, 1936. "Paris in Spring," National Geographic Magazine, October, 1936. "Port of Paris," Travel, May, 1935. "Road of the Crusades," National Geographic Magazine, December, 1920 "Strongholds of Berber War Lords," Travel, March, 1937. "Time's Footprints in Tusisian Sands," National Geographic Magazine, March, 1937. "Trial of Joan of Arc," Golden Book, March, 1934. "Versailles the Magnificent," National Geographic Magazine, December, 1933. "White City of Algiers," National Geographic Magazine, December, 1933. "With the Basque Peasants in the Pyrenees," Travel, February, 1937.
C. Music.
(The music teacher gave the students an appreciation of French music, and taught them to sing "The Marseillaise.")
Extra Credit Assignments
(From *Hughes, The Making of Today's World)
1. Arrange a dramatization of scenes in The French Revolution, such as:
1. A discussion among the king's ministers about calling the Estates-General.
2. A session of the Committee of Public Safety. 3. Scenes in Napoleon's career, such as:
a. The coup d'etat. b. The sale of Louisiana.
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c. A discussion among soldiers retreating from Moscow.
-::-<t.:
II. Draw a sketch or model of the Bastille or the guillotine.
III. Construct a model of the Bastille or the guillotine.
IV. Draw a cartoon to show one of the following: 1. What Napoleon thought of England. 2. How England felt toward Napoleon. 3. How the European wars looked to the people of the United States.
V. Write an imaginary conversation in a French home concerning the Revolution; in an English home during the French Revolution.
VI. Write a debate on the subject: Resolved, That the activities of Napoleon Bonaparte brought more good than harm to the world. You may choose either side you wish. Two people may wish to take sides and challenge others to debate with them.
VII. Write a theme on one of the following subjects: The Conditions in France Just Before 1789 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette The Fall of the Bastille The August Days of 1789 The Reign of Terror The Guillotine The J acobin Clubs The Prisons of London The Suburb of St. Antoine Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity The March of the Women to Versailles The Knitting Woman of the Revolution Year One of the Republic Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt The Early Life and Character of Napoleon Bonaparte
VIII. Any book reports on France.
IX. See the motion pictures, "A Tale of Two Cities" and "Conquest".
Naturally, all the materials suggested in this type of program could not be mastered by each student. The instructor used the discussion, the individual report, the question, and the group project methods to relate the material to the child's life.
236

In addition to the textbooks and supplementary material . already mentioned, maps, charts, pictures, cartoons, diagrams,
lJuifetin boards, posters, and lantern slides were used to vitalize instruction.
Results in respect to a program of the kind described may not be measured by tests or devices of the kind usually applied to measure progress in skill and knowledge achievement. The main objective of such a program is to create in the individual an inquisitive and not a passive interest in world affairs. Worth-while attitudes, rather than factual knowledge, are of greatest importance. During the unit the instructor saw evidence of growth in the following attitudes: willingness and ability to work for and with others, willingness to evaluate new evidences and to make decisions accordingly, the recognition of the validity of other's opinion, and an appreciation of the artistic and aesthetic.
The students progressed in the ability to find materials, to acquire data through reading, and to talk and write correctly.
The instructor believed the following understandings were realized: A comprehension of the international standing of France today, a knowledge of the geography of France and its effect on the people and history, and the ability to recognize a few of the most important personages in the history, literature, art and music of France.
It is the author's opinion that the above attitudes, knowledges, and skills could not be attained by the traditional page by page method of teaching one textbook. It is hoped that the social studies and English teachers will rationally use the many quantities of information now available.
Another learning experience was developed from questions which raised the problems of sectional and racial prejudices. This is described below:
TITLE OF STUDY: RACIAL AND SECTIONAL PREJUDICE
Background of Study:
A historical study of the growth of slavery and the development of sectionalism which culminated in the Civil War.
Purpose of Study:
1. To bring about a better understanding of the race problem in the South and an unprejudiced attitude toward improving race relations.
2. To bring about an unprejudiced attitude toward. the North.
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3. To improve the abilities of students to use materials, to find, classify, judge, and assemble information.
<!..:
Sources of Information:
1. State adopted books:
History of Our People A Unit History of the United States American People Our Nation's Development Civics Through Problems Our Social World
2. Other books used as references:
Textbooks on American history Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia The World Book Encyclopedia Encyclopedia Britannica
3. Recent magazine articles concerning the race problem.
4. Pamphlets obtained from the Conference on Education and Race Relations, Atlanta, Georgia.
State adopted American history books furnished adequate material for obtaining the historical background which was necessary for a clear understanding of conditions which led to the problems of sectional prejudice and race prejudice.
Noone book was read and studied in obtaining the needed facts, but all were used as reference books. In this way students ceased to think of books in terms of numbers of pages or chapters to be studied and regarded them as sources of information which they needed to obtain.
Interest in the unit was created in various ways. The antilynching bill which was being discussed in Congress created interest; several students were encouraged to read such books as Booker T. Washington's Up From Slavery as part of their outside reading, and they made interesting reports to the class. Some students who wished to read magazine articles were encouraged to read some of the more recent ones which pertained to the race problem ("I Am a Negro," Williams, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1937), or which had dealt with criticisms or comments about either the North or South.
Most students find history interesting if they can see that it is of use in helping them .understand their present problems; therefore, in this unit they found interest in studying the development of sectionalism and the history of slavery in this country.
The students brought up many questions concerning this
238

historical background and these were listed by the class. To these
.the.teacher added others of importance, and from these was made
. a'cguide sheet"for the students to follow in their study.
Some of the questions on the "guide sheet" were:
(1) How long has the negro been in this country? (2) Why were they brought over here? (3) What do we mean by saying a person is a "slave"? (4) Why did some slaveholders not want the negroes to be
educated? (5) Why did some slaveholders not want negroes to be
converted to Christianity? (6) Did all southerners believe in slavery? Did all north-
erners hate slavery? (7) Did all southerners hate northerners and all northerners
hate southerners at the time of the Civil War? (8) Why do some southerners today claim to "hate the
North"? (9) Can a country make real progress if there is antagonism
between sections? Between races?
These and many other questions guided the class in finding information. All of their questions were listed and they were free to use any of the materials in finding the needed information. They sometimes worked individually and sometimes worked in groups finding and discussing material and information. Often class discussions grew out of problems of individuals or of the groups and the entire class participated.
At the close of the unit, each student wrote a theme on "My Attitude Toward the North" and a term paper on "Our Race Problem in the South." Informational tests were given as a means of checking up on the use made of materials and the information acquired from the books used. These tests, the papers written, and the class discussions were means of evaluating the accomplishments of each student.
PART II, NATURAL SCIENCE
DESCRIPTIVE CHEMISTRY
FOODS
Probable Time: Six weeks.
Purpose: To study the chemistry of foods.
289

Objectives.

-c<L

1. To improve laboratory skills and techniques.

2. To learn methods of testing for the presence of the chief

chemical constitutents in foods.

3. To compare for dietary purposes the relative amount of

fats, carbohydrates, proteins and water in numerous foods.

4. To determine the available foods provided by the

community.

5. To compare the preservation of foods by chemical and

physical means.

6. To learn the relation of chemistry to the digestion and

assimilation of foods in the human body.

7. To study the relation of unsanitary conditions to the

growth of bacteria.

Instructions.
1. The assignment for this unit will be divided into three divisions according to amount and difficulty of work. The student may select the maximum, average or minimum assignment as a working goal, but should strive for the highest.
2. Reference work may be done in class periods or at home. Experimental work will in most cases be done in the laboratory.
3. Tests based on the chief references will be given at intervals.
4. Written reports for individual, group and class experiments must be made.
5. Each group experiment will be planned and studied over a period of several days by the group to which it is assigned. Then the members of the group will explain and demonstrate the results to the rest of the class.
6. The oral reports on the special and current topics will be made in groups of four or five students. The group will decide on the value of each report (maximum credit, ten points) and the chairman of the group will present a written record of the grades to the instructor. The groups will select the best reports from the group for class discussion.

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Assignment.
I. Minimum:
Completion of all study exercises on foods in Senior Science Manual.
Completion of all experiments in individual group under "Required."
Oral and written report on one chapter from Hunger Fighters.
Oral report on seven special topics from reference list. Participation in group and class projects (written re-
ports required).

II. Average:
Minimum plusOral report on three additional special topics, plusEven numbered questions on p. 183-184 in Descriptive
Chemistry and Physics, plusTwo experiments from individual group marked,
"Extra."

III. Maximum:

Minimum and average, plus-

Oral reports on three scientific articles relating to foods

from current newspapers or magazines, plus-

Remaining questions on p. 183-184 in Descn~ptive Chem-

istry and Physics.

.

IV. Extra Credit:

Additional experiments approved by instructor, 5 points

Posters, scrapbooks, etc.,

10 points

Reference List.
I. General: Senior Science, p. 277-350 Modern Science Problems, p. 76-97 Descriptive Chemistry and Physics, p. 147-184 Waggoner's Laboratory Exercises (experiments from group list) Harris and Lacey: Everyday Foods (especially tables of foodstuffs in appendix) De Kruif: Hunger Fighters
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II. Special Topics:

-<t.:

A. Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia

What to eat to build healthy bodies, F-144 Proteins, the nitrogen providers, P-356 Carbohydrates, their chemistry and food value,
C-174, F-144, B-109 Fats and oils, F-17 Minerals essential to life, M-185 Vitamins and the regulation of health, V-309 The calorie, unit of food value, F-144, C-35 Fundamentals of good cooking, C-349 Bread and baking, B-228 Milk, butter and cheese, M-172, B-281, C-164 The various cuts of beef, M-101 Fermentation and decay of foods, F-24, B-12 How food is preserved: Canning, C-73; dehydrated
food, D-38; refrigeration, R-67; pasteurization, P-84; chemical preservatives, A-223 Pure food laws, P-368 Machinery of the human body and how it works, P-202 Digestion-the maintenance and refueling of the living engine, D-68 The stomach and its functions, S-292 Enzymes and their effects, E-298 The history and geography of food, F-140; outline, S-185; dates, D-19

B. World Book Encyclopedia

Biochemistry, p. 743 Botany, p. 889 Chlorophyll, p. 1406 Plants (importance), p. 5647 Starch, p. 6809 Fungi, p. 2637 Parasite, p. 5363-5365 Animal, p. 289 Agriculture, p. 93-104 Adulteration of foodstuffs, p. 54-56 Food (work of body), p. 2509 Food (as fuel), p. 2511 . Metabolism, p. 4413-4414 Food (chemistry of, proteins, fats, inorganic sub-
stances, vitamins), p. 2509-2511 Carbohydrates, p. 1190

242

Glucose, p. 2845 Sugar, p. 6906-6910 Fats, p. 2376
Experimental work. The experimental work will be divided into three groups:

1. Individual (Modern Science Problems)

Required

Experiment

Page

50

76

54

80

58

87

Exercise in second column

Extra
Experiment
59 61 64 Other investigations

Page
87 87 92 93

II. Group (Waggoner's manual)
The class will be divided into five groups. Each group will complete one of the experiments listed below: 1. Exercise 22, Diffusion and Exercise 23, Osmosis 2. Exercise 41, Yeast Fermentation 3. Exercise 45, The Growth of Bacteria 4. Exercise 46, Preservatives and Disinfectants 5. Exercise 15, The Action of Enzymes and Exercise 56,
The Effect of Exercise on the Pulse Rate

III. Class
1. Inspection of Swift's refrigeration plant, etc.
Suggested Bibliography
Bush, Ptacek and Kovats, Senior Science and accompanying laboratory manual, American Book Company.
Chaney and Ahlborn, Nutrition, Houghton Mifflin Company; Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia, F. E. Compton Company. De Kruif, P., Hunger Fighters, Harcourt, Brace and Company. *Greer, C. C., Foods and Homemaking, Allyn and Bacon. *Harris and Lacey, Everyday Foods, Houghton Mifflin Company *Lanman, McKay and Zuill, The Family's Food, J. B. Lippincott
Company. *Obourn and Heiss, Modern Science Problems, Webster Publish-
ing Company. Waggoner, H. D., Laboratory Exercises to accompany Wag-
goner's Modern Biology, D. C. Heath and Company. *Wheat and Fitzpatrick, Everyday Problems in Health, American
Book Company.

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*Wilson, S. R., Descriptive Chemistry and Physics, Henry Holt

-::--.,-2.,:

and Company.

World Book Encyclopedia, Quarrie and Company.

'On Georgia state list of textbooks.

A STUDY IN BIOLOGY
WHY LIVING THINGS BEHAVE AS THEY DO
The following study was carried out successfully in a modern high school in the state. This study illustrates the advantages derived from using a varied number of books furnished by the state. The reason for selecting this topic was that it seemed likely to meet an expressed need on the part of the children. A child is naturally curious about the behavior of living things, particularly that of human beings. With a clearer understanding of his own reactions it was felt that he would be better able to adapt himself to his environment. Beginning with his natural interests in flowers, his pets, his schoolmates, and the like, the teacher was able to lead him into a fuller appreciation of the behavior of living things.
Purpose
In a broader ~ense, this study purposed to give the students a clearer understanding of the reasons for their own actions and reactions as well as those of the people with whom they may be associated. Particular emphasis was placed on the five general types of responses made by living things, namely, tropisms, reflexes, instincts, "trial and error," and reflective thinking. Practical application was made by demonstrating to the students the methods and means by which man alone of living things can consciously form good habits and attitudes and break bad ones. The far reaching purpose was to actually make the students become better individual citizens; and also to show them that any group of people, whether it be high school class, family, community, or nation, may improve its own behavior to advantage.
Approach and Exploration
1. Class Discussion
2. Pretest
A spontaneous discussion arose when a student brought in a newspaper clipping about the different counties that were voting at that time on the repeal of prohibition. There was a rapid
244

exchange of ideas about the good results accomplished by prohibi- .tion in general. It was admitted that many Americans drink
. Ileavily even when they know it is bad for them. The "national drinks" of countries such as beer for Germany, wine for France, and tea for England were commented upon. From their own experiences the children pointed out broken homes, crashed personalities, and wrecked sections of town caused largely because the people involved drank alcohol in some form. From this beginning the discussion turned to the possible harm that comes from smoking cigarettes. At that time many articles concerning marihuana cigarettes were appearing in some of the popular magazines, such as Reader's Digest and others. The pupils mentioned them of their own accord and brought the articles into class on the following day. It was natural then to bring out the fact that a hi~h percentage of our population are patent medicine or "dope" addicts. When the discussion was over the foremost question in the minds of the stuqents was: Why do people indulge in detrimental practices when they know that they are expensive and harmful? The next day a brief pretest that clinched the previous discussion and enlarged on the ideas was given. Some of the typical questions were:
1. Is there any good reason for the existence of alcohol, marihuana, etc., in the world?
2. Why do people respond to things that have a pleasing sensation even when they realize that they are harmful?
3. What is a response? A stimulus? 4. Would a dog deserve more blame for becoming a drunk-
ard than a man would for doing the same thing?
5. How does an amoeba know to take in certain particles as food and refuse others when he has no brain?
6. How important is its nervous system to an organism? 7. How does man's behavior differ from that of plants and
animals? .
Assimilation
The following books were used: Everyday Problems in Biology, Pieper, Beauchamp and
Frank New Biology, Smallwood, Reveley, and Bailey Dynamic Biology, Baker and Mills Biology and Human Welfare, Peabody and Hunt
245

"Adventures in Living," Keeping Fit, Wood, Phelan, Lerrigo, Lamkin and Rice
-:::--.,-1..:. Everyday Problems in Health, Wheat and Fitzpatrick Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs, Grant L. Donnelly
The main object at this point was to keep the student's interest in the naturally interesting parts of the problem while the more technical side was approached. They were required to read Unit VIII, "Why Living Things Behave As They Do," from Everyday Problems in Biology. Time was taken by the teacher to establish understanding of the major ideas presented. The study introduced the students to many new ideas and technical terms which were recorded in their classroom netebooks.
Many classroom experiments were conducted; the following are typical:
1. Put house flies in a partially lighted fruit jar. Note their responses to light and darkness.
2. Place young radish plants in a dark box with an opening on the side that faces the light. Note the direction in which they grow.
3. Insert the stem of a young seedling in the drain hole of a flower pot. Fill with soil. Suspend the pot and watch to see that the stem curls around the side and begins to grow away from gravity again.
4. Put some acetic acid on one side of a frog's body. Note that the hind leg will always brush off the paper.

The following are typical of a number of home activities that

were suggested:

.

1. Observe caRdIe flies going toward light.
2. Observe a sunflower turning to follow the course of the sun.
3. Capture some water insects with a dip net. Carry them to a place where water is not visible, and then turn them loose. Watch their line of travel.
4. Dip the end of a tooth pick in some vinegar and place it near the anterior end of an earthworm. Watch his reactions.
5. Cross your leg and strike the upper leg directly below the knee. Note reflex movement.
6. Try the "conditioned reflex" method of teaching your dog a trick.
Careful records of the home activities were reported to the class. The experiments and activities were arranged to carry

246

through a particular line of development. They, with short class . discussions, first attempted to make the students understand
-o--2tropisms, reflexes, conditioned reflexes, "trial and error," instincts and reflective thinking. During a part of the class period the students worked in temporary groups on self-testing exercises found in Everyday Problems in Biology and prepared to emphasize vital points in the study. The groups finished at different times. The faster students did parallel reading in Dynamic Biology on the chapter, "Nerves and Behavior," and in New Biology on the chapter, "Nervous System of Man." Notes were taken in the individual notebooks. This extra reading kept the superior students busy. The extra reading introduced them to the importance of the structure of the nervous system and its effects on the level of behavior of a living thing. The groups made charts classifying all the animals that they could from the amoeba to man according to their complexity of behavior. Into their notebooks, the students put drawings of the brain, the entire nervous system of man, a typical nerve cell, a reflex are, etc. The drawings were selected from the various textbooks. New groupings of students wrote papers on how habits are formed. Then they m~de a list and chart showing the good health habits that a capable student should have. The chart was checked everyday by every individual. To make the chart they consulted carefully:
1. "Adventures in Living," Keeping Fit
2. Everyday Problems in Health
Next they listed some of the bad habits that a person might have. To do this they consulted Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs. The two best lists of both types were posted on the bulletin board in the classroom.
At this point in the study the students understood something of the nervous systems of animals and the ways that habits are formed. The mention of bad habits brought them back to their first discussion and pretest. The teacher had been careful to keep the interest alive by mentioning these problems every day in class. By this time the students had assembled quite a collection of newspaper and magazine articles pettaining to the matter. All this material was put into a classroom notebook (one for each class) labeled, "Possible Enemies to Man."
Then the study sidetracked temporarily to give special attention to the alcohol problem. The approach was made on the basis of scientific truth rather than on moral and personal rights. The students were already familiar with the book, Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs. They finished reading it. They saw
247

how important the problem is to industry and science. They made . .and. distilled alcohol in class. Then the study led into the harm -c<L that alcohol might do to an individual and thus to a group. The
effect on all the body parts were discussed, stressing particularly the effect on the brain ~nd nerves, and on voluntary and reflex movements. This gave an excellent tie-up with the previously learned technical facts.
Lest the students become tired of extended study, the last part of the book which dealt with alcohol and social health was approached differently. Again the class was divided into groups. Encyclopedias and other books were sent down from the library. The group reports that were worked up were:
1. The social drinkers.
2. Insanity and social diseases.
3. Crime.
4. Accidents.
5. Cigarettes, marihuana, and drugs such as opium and cocaine.
The reports were read in class, the students being allowed to take notes. The teacher collected the main ideas and put them on the board as a study guide.
The problems had been presented; the students had learned that man seems to be a victim of his habits, but that he can control them. Then the time was ripe to dwell upon the reflective powers of man. Using the last part of Unit VIII i'n Everyday Problems in Biology, the teacher prepared a lecture on man's reflective powers, their importance in the past, the present and the future. It was followed by a class discussion. While discussing the possibilities of man's development, the students read Unit X, Problem 3, "Upon What Does Success in Life Depend?" (Biology and Human Welfare).
Tests
Two short factual tests had been given during the study: 1. To see if the students understood the technical part of the
nervous system of animals. 2. To see if they understood the facts about making alcohol. 3. An examination on the whole study was given at the end.
Itincluded everything that had been mentioned and was designed to show how all of it was connected. It was necessary to use true-false, as-sociation, completion, and discussion types of questions. Retests were given after each test. Special help was given to
248

students who needed it in private conferences in class and after senoo!. .
Statement of Learnings
A. Major learnings:
1. Knowledge of how plants, man, and animals respond to various stimuli.
2. Understanding of representative nervous systems of animals.
3. Realization of importance of habit formation, stressing both good and bad habits.
4. Better understanding of the harm that may come from alcohol and any other detrimental substances that man indulges in.
5. Realization of the fact that man alone has power to overcome bad behavior through his reflective powers.
B. Classroom exhibits :
1. Charts showing good and bad habits. 2. Classroom notebooks. 3. Group report projects. 4. Charts classifying different levels of behavior of living
things.
C. Concurrent learnings and motives:
1. Intellectual activity-reading, planning and execution of projects, looking up materials in library, increasing vocabulary, absorbing facts from reading a whole book.
2. Co-operation-much of the work was done in groups which brings it about naturally.
3. Renewed interests in health rules that possibly had become trite.
4. Search for whole truth-scientific reasons for a thing should accompany moral reasons.
5. Democratic spirit--good group discussion that allowed every member to express his opinion freely did much for his ideas.
6. Social consciousness-they saw the inevitable results, such as crime, social diseases, and insanity, that come from a misuse of harmless products:
7. Inspirations-to make the most of themselves with their own powers that lift them a little above the animals.

MATHEMATICS*
-:;-<"-2.,:
The mathematics state adopted books are used primarily for reference. Due to the nature of the work, no one text could be followed exactly or used as the only source of material.
Each student has in her possession one book for which she is responsible-a book most nearly suited to her grade level. However, each student is constantly using texts in possession of other grades. For example, in the eighth grade, when working on the unit, "Intuitive Geometry," the class found additional material in the tenth grade plane geometry book, as well as in various other books in the library.
Each senior has a book on business arithmetic. However, this service course calls for numerous references. The text cannot be used as a guide in planning the work. An example of its use follows: when a student, in her work in other classes or elsewhere, runs into a problem involving decimals and discovers she is unable to handle them, an effort is made in this course to meet the need. She can look up this topic in her text and, by individual work, her difficulty will be taken care of. This same plan is followed, whether the weakness is characteristic of the entire group or of one individual.
Pupils often find needs which carry them into the fields of algebra and geometry as well as arithmetic. In this case, they may borrow the algebra and geometry books which are used by the other grades and do special work on their particular problem.
The fact that pupils have access to several books is beneficial in many ways. Not only are they able to find additional material and problems but they can find the same topics presented from different points of view. The ninth grade pupils, in their texts, will find the subject of ratio and proportion considered from an algebraic angle, which is very inadequate for a thorough understanding and appreciation of its meaning and use. By using the plane geometry books in connection with this, they are able to see more fully the geometric application. Of course any teacher would present both sides of the question but it helps to clarify this for the students to actually see for themselves.
*This and the materials which immediately follow for "progressive programs" were prepared by Mary Thomas Maxwell, Mary Lee Anderson, Irene Scanlon, Mrs. J. G. Lowe, Lila Blitch, Austelle Adams and Louise McDaniel, of the Peabody High School, Georgia State College for Women, Milledgeville.
250

ENGLISH
---1..: The English department uses the "Literature and Life" published by Scott, Foresman and Company and "Your English Problems" published by Silver Burdett and Company as recognized textbooks, with Houghton Mifflin's "Literature in the Senior High School" edited by Briggs, the Singer Company's "Prose and Poetry," and "Units in English" published by Lyons and Carnahan as reference authorities. However, no books in the English department can strictly be called textbooks; all are used as reference sources to aid in the development of certain units of work. For example, if the study revolves about "Present Earmarks of the War Between the States," the pupil needs many history, English, science, and art references to be able to handle the unit intelligently. The more books on the schoolroom shelf, the more convenient will be the handling of source material.
When students write articles in which there are comma faults, verb and subject errors, and case difficulties, three books are better than one in studying to avoid such sentence errors.
Reference work with teacher guidance soon leads the student into the habit of consulting more than one source before forming opinions.
SOCIAL SCIENCE
Textbook teaching is not done in social science work therefore the books used are necessarily for reference. Generally, books (whether state or library) connected with it has been collected on the shelves of the social science room. These are checked out to the students just as from any library. Although a set of books is generally left in the hands of each group as a working basis, no set is allowed to become static, or the fixed property of anyone group or individual.
The ninth and tenth grade groups have sets of world histories by different authors; therefore, they interchange books from time to time for broader views and better knowledge.
The group studying modern cultures in English life use the English literature books to aid them in that phase of the work.
The "American life group," developing a unit on Georgia, borrowed the seventh grade Georgia literature books.
The seniors making a study of the Constitution used the eighth grade civics in addition to their books on government.
Books on economics, sociology, government, safety, first aid, civics, science, and as many sets on literature and history as we can get (not enough for each child to have a copy of the same work but enough for reference), are kept on the reference shelves
251

I

of the social science room or the general library and are used by

-::"-.,.-2..: any group needing them for the problem under consideration.

~

For example, the "community life group" uses the civics, science,

~j
~

literature, safety, first aid and health books as the different phases

and problems of the study are taken up. The "American life

group" uses the American histories, American literature books,

economics, sociologies, government books, etc., as the problems

studied call for the information that these books can supply.

HOME ECONOMICS
In the unit on "Foods and Nutrition" in the eighth grade, Everyday Foods by Harris and Lacey; The Family's Food by Lanman, McKay and Zuill; and Foods and Homemaking by Greer, were used as texts to compare recipes, menus, and food principles for class and individual work. The following science books were used to solve research problems in connection with this unit: Dynamic Biology by Baker and Mills; Modern-Life Chemistry by Kruh, Carleton, and Carpenter.
In a unit on "Clothing Selection and Care," Singer sewing machine charts, color swatches, fashion magazine posters, monthly periodicals, as well as the references listed below were used: Fabrics and Dress by Rathbone and Tarpley, Clothing for Girls by Todd; Art in Home and Clothing by Trilling and Williams; and dressmaking books published by pattern companies.
In the study of "Child Care," Home Living by Justin and Rust; Foods and Homemaking by Greer; The Family's Food by Lanman, McKay, and Zuill; Practical Problems in Home Life for Boys and Girls by Talbot, Lytle, Pearson, and Johnson, were used as references. The Department of the Interior (D. S.) publications and life insurance pamphlets proved helpful as additional material for references. Books from the library on stories suitable for children were read in preparation for storytelling in class and for pleasure.
As a culminating unit in the eighth grade, "Community Life and Service," the students explored the development of various interests in Milledgeville, concentrating on how to get along with people. The girls read: What Is She Like by Brockman; The Girl Today, the Woman Tomorrow by Hunter; Getting Along With People by Wright; How to Win Friends and Influence People by Carnegie; and monthly periodicals. They fitted into the class discussion and into individual needs.
In the ninth grade, the biology and home economics departments worked on parallel units in nutrition and health. The following texts from both departments were used: Dynamic

252

. Biology by Baker and Mills; The Family's Food by Lanman, Mc. 1Kay, and Zuill; Foods and Homemaking by Greer; Everyday
Foods by Harris and Lacey; Boston Cooking-School Cook Book by Farmer.
In units on health, personal grooming and clothing, the following references were used as a source of material for research: Clothes for Girls by Todd; Art in Home and Clothing by Trilling and Williams; Fabrics and Dress by Rathbone and Tarpley; Textile Fabrics by Dyer; Everyday Living for Girls by Van Duzer; The Mode in Dress and Home by Donovan; as well as fashion periodicals. Aesthetic and cultural units required the use of "Your English Problems" by Easterbrook, Clark, Knickerbocker; People and Art by Moore; The Charm of a Well Mannered Home by Starrett; Behave Yourself by Allen and Briggs.
The tenth grade used Costume Throughout the Ages by Evans; Practical Problems in Home Life for Boys and Girls by Talbot; Art in Home and Clothing by Trilling and Williams; Fab1"ics and Dress by Rathbone and Tarpley; Everyday Living for Girls by Van Duzer; The Mode in Dress and Home by Donovan; Your Clothes and Personality by Ryan as sources of information for worl< in health as it is influenced by clothing, and in a study of personality development. Modern Physics by Dull, ModernLife Chemistry by Kruh, Carleton and Carpenter were also referred to frequently. There were no definite assignments required, but the books were used in solving problems and in research. Many of the books were read because of the interest developed and to strengthen the girls' background of knowledge. Etiquette books included were: What Is She Like by Brockman; Behave Yourself by Allen and Briggs; Social Usage for High Schools by Gillum.
While studying personality as it is influenced by diet, health, and grooming, the girls read and studied for personal information and satisfaction: Everybody's Cookbook by Ely; My Best Recipes by Hale; Everyday Foods by Harris and Lacey; Delineator Cook Book b~ Rose; Home Li1Jing by Justin and Rust; Fabrics and Dress by Rathbone and Tarpley; Art in Every Day Life by Goldstein; Boston Cooking-School Cook Book by Farmer; Handbook of Food Preparation by West and Sobye; Consumer's Guide; Good Housekeeping; McCall's; Ladies' Home Journal; American Home; Better Homes and Gardens; Hygeia; Food Research; Practical Home Economics; and The Journal of Home Economics.
The senior class in their overview of clothing emphasized the importance of the individual. This study was aided by research, reference, and class discussion, using the following material: People and Art by Moore; The Girl Today, the Woman To-
253

morrow by Hunter; Art in Home and Clothing by Trilling and -c<!Williams; Art in Every Day Life by Goldstein; Clothing for the
High School Girl by Baldt and Harkness; The Mode in Dress and Home by Donovan; Textile Fabrics by Dyer; Fabrics and Dress by Rathbone and Tarpley.
In the overview of foods in the senior group, a wide variety of books were used. Different methods of preparing foods were contrasted by using many books on foods: My Best Recipes by Hale; Everyday Foods by Harris and Lacey; Delineator Cook Book by Rose; Home Living by Justin and Rust; Boston CookingSchool Cook Book by West and Sobye; A Book of Tea by Kakuzo; General Foods Cook Book and American Home Foods File.
In all classes the girls were permitted to select their books for problem solving, reference, reading, research, and for individual problems from the shelves of the classroom bookcases and to check them out when they wish. No page or chapter assignments were made, and the girls used more books as a result of topic discussions.
SCIENCE
Each child is given copies of the adopted textbooks for the subject studied. These books are employed as follows:
1. They are used as a ready reference by the child. 2. They are not regarded as the only books nor the main
books to be used. 3. They are used by children in looking up needed facts and
information in the development of the different units of work. They are not followed page by page, but the needed information is gleaned regardless of pages or sequence in the book.
4. Frequently they are used by the teacher for motivation. For example, in a unit in the ninth grade on "Wild Life of the United States," the lovely pictures in the state adopted biology text were referred to by the teacher as illustrative material and to help the children get a broader idea of wild life preservation. This unit grew from an interest in "Wild Life Week," and was started with newspaper and magazine articles. The text was consulted to see if it offered any of the information needed by the class. It was only one of a dozen or more books so used.
5. As references they are used in the ninth grade integrated unit on "Developing the Individual for Social and Group
254

Living." Books from several departments were on the classrootn shelves to be consulted as the study developed. For example, in the problem, "How can I dBvelop a pleasing personality?" the texts of the English, biology and home economics departments were used, as well as the state books on health. The class decided that a pleasing personality would include the use of good English, a well and vigorous body, properly groomed. In order to study all of these phases of personality the students used the texts and references in all three departments to secure the needed information. 6. They are used as the basis for certain foundation factual material in chemistry, thus making it possible to hold the pupils responsible for definite facts to be learned by every child. However here, also, other references were used-other state adopted books-to compare and to clarify ideas found in the text. The students found this most helpful and frequently made such comments as, "I found High School Chemistry by Bruce, in the library, makes this plainer than our text does;" or, "Don't you like the way this is taken up in First Principles of Chemistry? It seems easier to me." Such expressions coming from students, unsolicited, seem to indicate that they are developing the ability to study comparatively and to evaluate information obtained. This seems sufficient reason for having available several different books instead of just one text.
EIGHTH GRADE INTEGRATED UNIT
(ENGLISH-SCIENCE-CIVICS)
"LIVING AND WORKING IN THE COMMUNITY"
Textbooks supplied by the state: "Your English Problems," Book I, by Knickerbocker, Clark and Veit; "Literature and Life," Book I by Greenlaw, Elson, Keck and Miles; Cooperative Citizenship by Arnold; and Science in Daily Life by Trafton and Smith.
On the bookshelf in the classroom are twelve supplementary books on composition, one of which is the state adopted book, "Units in English," Book I, by Paul, Lance and Sullivan.
In this study of living and working in the community there has been no effort to consider topics in their order of arrangement in the textbook, nor to "cover" the textbook material. Rather the textbooks have been used when in the course of the study there
255

is a need for checking on information, widening the scope of the _c .__ .topic under consideration, or enriching the experiences of the
- students. For instance, when city government was being studied, the class decided that since they could not gain sufficient information by questioning members of their families, they would ask the mayor to come and answer questions. But they realized that before they could ask intelligent questions they needed a general background on the ways and means of governing cities. They turned to their civics books (Cooperative Citizenship) and studied the chapter, "Governing Cities," p. 525-539, where they found a discussion of the place of the city in the general governmental setup, various types of city government in our country, the divisions of city governmental authority, etc. With this information they were in a better position to formulate intelligent questions to put to the mayor concerning the government of their own city. When the written work of the students showed monotony because of the overuse of simple and compound sentences to the exclusion of complex sentences, the teacher directed a short unit in the use of complex sentences, to improve composition. The regular textbook ("Your English Problems") was used as a basis for some assignments, and the supplementary composition book ("Units in English") was used for further illustration during supervised study periods. When the subject of ventilation and heating came up for consideration in connection with the school community, the scientific principles involved: radiation, conduction of heat, the movement, temperature and humidity of air, and so on, were studied from the science textbook (Science in Daily Life, by Trafton and Smith).
FRENCH
Each child in the tenth grade was given The N e'W Chardenal by Grosjean and French Book One by Smith and Roberts; and in the eleventh grade, Easy French Readings by Havens and Moore and French Book Two by Smith.
These books are used as reference for additional information concerning reading, composition, and as the basis for tests. No set book is assigned daily. By using many books the pupils gain a broader knowledge of subject matter, technique and culture. This makes it possible to adjust the amount of material to the slower and to the more advanced students.
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A GUIDE FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
. --WHICH ARE .MAINTAINING TRADITIONAL PROGRAMS
In trying to set up a guide for the junior and senior high schools which are maintaining traditional programs, one immediately raises the question, what is a traditional program? It is a pertinent question in such a plan as this, but it is very difficult to get a definite answer. The term is certainly a relative one. What was classified as progressive or radical a few years ago may be regarded as traditional now.
The meaning of the term is interpreted in almost as many ways as there are different groups of people. It varies also, of course, from individual to individual. In the minds of some of the "progressives" the unit method, for example, is traditional.
In starting out, then, it may be well to state a few of the marks, which, in the opinion of the members of the committee, designate a traditional school, or a traditional program. These may be called characteristics:
1. A majority of the work is prescribed, and only about one-fourth elective.
II. Course content does not vary materially from year to year.
III. In general, only one textbook is the basis of a course, though other books may be in use for outside reading, reports, etc.
IV. Units where used are superimposed upon the factual material, rather than the material growing from the unit idea.
V. Adequate provision is still needed to take care of indi. vidual differences.
These are some of the characteristics of the traditional program. It is realized by this committee that no one school is dominated by all of them. If this were true, this particular school's program would be inadequate. The suggestions below under the eight divisions will set up some of the procedure which will find a following in traditional schools.
An examination of the courses offered in the high schools of Georgia will show a marked standardization in subjects. In general, the program is as follows: English, 4 units; languages, 2 to 4 units; history, 2 to 4 units; mathematics, 2 to 3 units; science, 2 to 4 units; vocational subjects, 1 to 4 units.
Recently the State Board of Education adopted a program
257

of studies which carries out the plan which the Georgia Program c2.; for the Improvement of Instruction gave us. The board then
adopted books to be furnished by the state and used by the pupils of the state. These books and suggestions for their use will be discussed under eight general divisions, as follows:
I. English-grammar, composition, spelling and literature.
II. Mathematics-general mathematics, algebra, plane and solid geometry.
III. Science-health science, general science, biology, chemistry, physics, applied science.
IV. Social Science-civics, vocational guidance, world history, American history, problems of democracy, American government, economics, sociology.
V. Foreign languages-Latin, French, Spanish, German.
VI. Vocational agriculture-farm crops, livestock, poultry husbandry, horticulture, farm management, soil erosion, farm shop, food preservation.
VII. Home economics-food, clothing, home living and home management, art in the home and interior decorating, child care and training, personality and personal problems.
VIII. Commercial subjects-business English, shorthand, business spelling, bookkeeping, secretarial training, typewriting, salesmanship, business arithmetic, general business, business law, commercial geography.
ENGLISH
In the field of English, we have oral and written composition, grammar, spelling, and literature. The state requires one unit in literature and two in the other phases of English, but most high schools require four units in English.
It is generally conceded that eighth and ninth grade pupils need work in grammar and spelling. It would be a desirable thing if intense concentration on these fundamentals could be completed at the end of the ninth grade. But this is not possible in many school situations in Georgia. In all four years constant attention must be given not only to correctness but also to the pleasing qualities of oral and written composition. Because of individual differences, we have given up the idea that all children can be educated to the same level. Therefore, achievemnt in
258

English expression and technical grammar will vary with different school systems and different needs.
In spelling it has been shown that good performance can be ___"obtained by concentration on the subject, even with very slow
pupils. The spelling books on the adopted list give excellent suggestions for the teaching of this subject.
The literature programs of the high schools of the state will be greatly enriched as a result of the wide range of books selected by the State Board of Education. The selection indicates a significant trend in the literature courses. There seems to be a movement to have a few books of many different kinds instead of having one literature book for each pupil. For instance, a class of thirty-five first year high school students could have available seven copies of each of the eighth year literature texts. This would enable the student to become acquainted with many more selections than anyone book could give.
The importance of the library here cannot be overestimated. Whether one text or a combination of texts is the plan used, the greatest contribution the library can make is in providing a wide variety of modern literature. Most of our literature programs in the high schools ignore the fact that good books have been written since 1850. There probably should be in every high school of the state a course of at least one semester's length in recent and contemporary literature, or approximately that much of the time alloted to literature should be spent on the last fifty or seventy-five years.
One other important suggestion in connection with literature has to do with the teaching of it. The main purpose should be to develop a fondness and appreciation for the selections. The analytical or dissectional method has no place in the high school program.
MATHEMATICS
The new high school program adopted by the State Board of Education requires that all graduates have one unit in general mathematics. This is a surveyor exploratory course in mathematics, and probably should be given in the eighth grade. It does include the elements of algebra and special emphasis should be put on arithmetic. Such a course will meet the needs of a great percentage of Georgia high school graduates.
It was the opinion of the professional committee on mathematics that the general mathematics course provided enough algebra to prepare those children who wish to take the second or advanced course in algebra. Under the new program, advanced
259

algebra (one unit), plane geometry (one unit), and solid geometry (one-half unit) are elective.
.It must be borne in mind that most colleges still require for entrance one unit of algebra and one unit of plane geometry. The mathematics programs, for this reason, will almost of necessity include these courses. A good outline of the topics which should be covered in elementary algebra, second year algebra, plane and solid geometry will be found in the bulletin, The Accredited High Schools of Georgia. This is a bulletin published every year by the University of Georgia.
SCIENCE
The program recently adopted by the State Board of Education requires that a unit in health be given to every high school graduate (or a half-unit in health and a half-unit in physical education). The best place for this course seems to be in the eighth grade. Some schools have arranged to offer it in three or four parts, one in each of the first three years. There are a number of disadvantages to the idea of spreading out the course over several years.
Four textbooks are furnished for the health course. One is a rather inclusive book which treats of the general problems of health. One of the other three books is First Aid, published by the American Red Cross. This is a very valuable book in that it is so practical. The same is true of the book, 'safe and Sane Driving. It presents a problem which has come to be a real one in the last few years. It is significant that the State Board of Education took notice of it so that it was made a required part of the health unit. The book, Alcohol and the Habit-Forming Drugs, is a scientific treatise on this subject.
An addition to these four texts which will be published in the near future concerns the problems of the health of Georgia. This will constitute an important contribution as it will serve to focus attention on situations which are right at home.
Little need be said about general science, biology, chemistry, and physics, each generally a one-unit course. They have been an important part of the science program of our high schools for years. Some colleges still require one or more of these for entrance. As much individual laboratory work should be done as possible, but in small schools where expensive apparatus for each pupil cannot be bought, lecture:-demonstration can take the place of individual laboratory work. Enough work has been done to show that the lecture-demonstration at the high school level is
260

perfectly justifiable. Standard laboratory notebook work should be required in each of these courses.
In addition to these familiar courses, we have books for -ii-pplied science. The offering of the applied science should meet with the approval of all the high school people of the state~ A prerequisite should be one or more previous science courses. It is an opportunity to give the everyday practical applications of the principles of the various sciences. Although it may be given at first to the non-college type of high school student, it should eventually prove to be a very valuable course for all pupils.
In addition to the health and physical education unit, the state now requires one unit in science.
SOCIAL SCIENCE
The social science program reflects in a definite way the changes which have been in progress in the high schools of the country during the last ten years. There is a tendency in many secondary school programs to have the curriculum center around the social sciences. At any rate, the State Board of Education furnishes a fine set of new textbooks for the subjects included in this field. Most of these books are organized on the unit basis which represents an important change from the older system of simply setting forth factual material in chronological order.
In the eighth grade the sequence which probably is being used by most schools of the state is a half year of civics followed by a half year of vocational guidance. Several of the books for these two courses are planned around important problems of the community, the state, and the nation. The course in vocational guidance should render a great contribution toward helping young people solve many of their problems. The material of the books adopted is new and up-to-date, but it should be supplemented by studies of various occupations such as we find in monographs. This material could be gathered and kept in the library in a special guidance file.
In most schools one unit of world history has replaced separate units in ancient and medieval history and modern European history. A great deal of work has been done in this field of world history in recent years and there are a number of very attractive, modern books for the teaching of this course.
The most important single social science course is American history. This should stress especially our government-how it came into existence, how it has changed in use, and what its underlying principles are. Ample time should be spent on American history of the past sixty or seventy years, with an effort to
261

develop some understanding of the rapidly changing situations of the past dozen years.
Problems of democracy, American government, economics ~2.: and socioiogy are four other social science courses which have
found a place in the high school program in the last ten years. They are usually given as half-unit courses in the tenth and eleventh grades, although the three small volumes, Problems of Our Time, are suitable for a full unit course.
All social science courses are especially enriched by the use of biographical, geographical and literary material; by the use of collateral reading, oral and written reports, notebook and map work, debating, and similar procedures; and by the use of many texts instead of one, with a constant reliance on library facilities.
Requirements in this group are a half-unit in vocational guidance, a unit in American history and government, and two additional social science units for which home economics may be substituted.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
There is little that needs to be said concerning this field. A fine selection of modern Latin books has been adopted. These should do a great deal to vitalize the teaching of this subject in the high school. For several years there has been a tendency to get away from the use of only one author, such as Caesar, in the second year course. Other readings are supplied in connection with Cicero and Virgil. Reading is stressed rather than the analyzing of forms and unusual words. Two years of Latin are generally offered. In order to take care of smaller demand for third and fourth year Latin, Cicero and Virgil may be offered in alternate years.
For the modern languages-usually French, Spanish, and German-the emphasis the first year should be on speaking and using the language. Some easy reading could be done near the end of the first year. In the second year writing the language should have more attention. Conversation should be continually practiced and the reading should be wide and varied.
Very few of the schools of the state are justified in offering more than two foreign languages-one, in addition to Latin. In some rural situations with small schools the offering of languages at all is of doubtful value.
VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
A generous number of texts are provided in this field. These books cover such divisions as farm crops, livestock, poultry hus-
262

bandry, farm management, horticulture, soil erosion, farm shop, and food preservation. Most of these courses would be offered as halt-Unit work, and all of them should be very definitely related to the local community situation. All study of theory should be demonstrated in practice. Projects may well constitute a part of the program in vocational agriculture. Valuable helps may be obtained from the State College of Agriculture and from the documents of the Federal government.
HOME ECONOMICS
Excellent books have been provided in this field as well as in agriculture. In some schools of the state no effort is made to make this avocational course. Rather it is taught from the viewpoint of adding to general culture and background. It is usually in the larger, the metropolitan schools, that we find this approach, which perhaps has in it a suggestion for those who are teaching what is called a vocational course. In other words, the primary emphasis need not be on home economics as a vocation.
No matter from which point of view the teacher may carry on the work in home economics, there will be found ample books on the various phases of the subject. These are grouped under six main fields, as follows: Foods, clothing, home living and home management, art in the home and interior decorating, child care and training, and personality and personal problems. Most of these courses would be half-unit work, related as far as possible to the lives of the students, and thoroughly practical as well as theoretical. Again, home projects will be an important part of the work. Publications from the home economics department of the colleges and universities, and the Federal government will be found to be of invaluable aid.
COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS
This field may include the following, and books for each have been adopted: Business English, shorthand, ,business spelling, bookkeeping, secretarial training, typewriting, salesmanship, business arithmetic, general business, business law, commercial geography. All of the books adopted for these courses represent the latest and most up-to-date practice in the particular fields. Some of the work, such as business English and business arithmetic, can be correlated with the regular programs in the English and mathematics departments.
Several of the companies which publish these books give valuable suggestions to the people who are elected to teach these subjects. Other help may be obtained from such publications as
268

,se of the Commission on Business Education in Secondary 1001s of the National Education Association.
It may be pointed out that many of these commercial subjects re a place in the program not only for their vocational value, ,also for their general cultural value. Typewriting, for example, is a very important and valuable subject for one who is to live in the modern world, even though the individual may never do a day's work in an office. General business training gives a knowledge of many things which all people should know.
In the larger schools, generally in metropolitan areas, regular courses in music, art, and industrial arts are offered. Few schools are in a position to provide more than one unit in music and one in art during the four high school years. For these courses texts are not yet supplied by the state, since the demand is small. Industrial arts also varies a great deal throughout the state and texts are not yet provided. The state is supplying, however, a text in mechanical drawing, which may be a unit or a half-unit course according to the work done, or may be used in connection with another course, such as geometry.
The wise use of state textbooks by any school system is dependent on various factors, such as :
(1) A careful selection of courses which ought to be offered in that local situation so as to meet state requirements as to units, to meet the needs of those students going to college, and to be of real value to those not having a chance for further study.
(2) An arrangement of these into proper unit or half-unit courses, wisely progressing from less to more difficult, and planned so that the pupil work-load will average four units a year.
(3) The intelligent study of modern teaching procedure as represented in the texts supplied.
(4) An understanding of how to use effectively several texts in the same class, instead of one only; for instance in a class of thirty-two American history students, the selection of eight copies of each of the four texts offered, or perhaps fourteen of one text with six copies of each of the other three.
(5) A definite effort to build a library valuable for the courses offered by that particular school, the library supplying helps which are essential in all good teaching.
Let all school people examine the courses offered in their particular institutions, to justify their inclusion in that local structure; then study carefully the best teaching procedure possible with the texts supplied and in view of the needs of that particular community; then plan a gradual upbuilding of library material of all kinds as supplementary aid to teachers. Georgia is moving forward and we intend to move with her!
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Guide to use of state adopted textbooks (2024)

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